Pompeii – the city destroyed by volcano

庞贝 – 火山下毁灭的城市

Una furtiva Lagrima – cello y Piano

Pompeii is an ancient city of Roman empire located in the south of Napoli. It was buried under volcanic ash of thickness up to 4 to 6 m in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. The city was well preserved under the ash for 2000 years. After the excavation, it displayed the unique view of Roman life and Roman buildings. It becomes a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997. For the fans of Roman Empire, this will be a place of must-see.

庞贝城是位于那不勒斯南部的罗马帝国古城。在公元79年维苏威火山爆发时,它被埋在厚度达4至6米的火山灰下。这座城市在火山灰下完好保存了2000年。当它重见天日后,它展现了罗马时代的生活和罗马建筑的独特风貌。自1997年以来,它成为了联合国教科文组织的世界文化遗产。对于罗马帝国的粉丝来说,这是一个不可错过的地方。

I took the circumvesuviana train to the station Pompei Scavi-Villa dei Misteri and visited this place on July 19th 2020. This is entrance of the pompeii archaeological park. From here to the insides of the city, the aspects of the city are gradually shown to my eyes.


我乘坐circumvesuviana火车到Pompei Scavi-Villa dei Misteri车站,在2020年7月19日参观了这个地方。这是庞贝考古公园的入口。从这里进入城市深处,庞贝的风貌在我眼里逐渐展现出来。

I walked along the streets of the city under the scorching sunlight. The wide streets are made of uneven stone blocks. There are many similar streets in the city arranged horizontally and vertically. The city is planned like a chess board. The brick made houses along the streets were the residential place for local people when they were buried under the volcanico ash. When I idled along this road, I was really amazed at the historical vicissitude.


我在烈日下沿着街道漫步。宽阔的街道由高低不平的石头砌成。这里的街道基本是水平和垂直排列的,该市的规划就像棋盘一样。沿街的砖砌房屋是当地居民被埋在火山灰下时的住所。当我沿着这条路闲逛时,对历史的沧桑感到惊讶。

Via dell’Abbondanza

The Via dell’Abbondanza was the main street of ancient Pompeii, which was in the direction east/west from the Forum to the Porta Sarno. The street used to be full of hustle and bustle with many shops, snack-bars and restaurants but now the only things remaining are the cold stones and bricks that recorded the city’s history.

Abbondanza大街是庞贝古城的主要街道,从罗马广场到Sarno门东西而行。这条街上曾经到处都是熙熙攘攘的商店,小吃店和餐馆,但现在剩下的唯一遗迹就是记录城市历史的冰冷的砖石瓦砾。

There are many houses in the city and most of them are forbidden to visit for the reason of protection. This is one of the common residential houses that allow visitors to enter. I could enter and know more about the structure of their houses and how the room is arranged. The wall faces had showed signs of decay due to the infestation and erosions of ages.

城市里有很多房子,出于保护的原因,大多数房屋被禁止参观。这个是允许游客进入的普通住宅之一。我可以进去并深入解他们的房屋结构以及房间的布置方式。由于岁月的侵蚀,墙面已显示出腐烂的迹象。

The Odeon

In the southwest region of the city, I could see this small theatre The Odeon. It was a smaller roofed theatre built in 80 BC that could contain 1500 spectators. The Large Theatre in the city was used for staging drama whereas the Odeon was built for a more educated audience, as well as a musical concert performance.

在城市的西南区,我可以看到这个小剧院Odeon。它是一个较小的屋顶剧院,建于公元前80年,可容纳1500名观众。这座城市的大型剧院被用作公众舞台剧的演出,而这个小剧院则是为受教育的观众而建造的,并用于音乐会演出。

The central bath

It was said that Roman empire finally collapsed because they lost the desire to fight and indulged in comforts like baths. It was true that I could find the ruins of bath in many Roman cities like Arles, Pisa, Roma, Tarragona … Roman citizens really enjoyed having bath so they built many luxurious bath houses in their cities. The Central Baths were under construction at the time of the eruption so it was just an open court yard after it was excavated.

罗马帝国因为失去了战斗的欲望并沉迷于安逸而最终分崩离析。在阿尔勒,比萨,罗马,塔拉戈纳等许多城市,我都在罗马浴场的废墟遍布足迹。罗马公民非常热衷于洗浴这种享受,因此他们在自己的城市建造了许多豪华的浴场。火山喷发时,中央浴场正在建设中,因此挖掘后这里只是一个开放的庭院。

Casa di Cecilio Giocondo

In Pompeii, every house records the daily activity of the local people before they are buried under the volcanico ash. This is the house of Cecilio Giocondo who was a banker. His identity and name was deduced from the archive of 154 waxed boards excavated which recorded the amounts paid by the persons who buy the goods or paid the rents.

庞贝城的每所房屋都记录了当地居民在被火山灰掩埋之前的日常活动。这是银行家塞西利奥·乔康多(Cecilio Giocondo)的房子。他的身份和名字是从154个打蜡板的档案中发现的,其中记录了购买商品或支付租金的金额。

This house attracted me a lot because of its elegant garden surrounded by the perystyliums; in the Roman epoch, perystylium is the symbol of residence of wealthy family and is regarded as the symbol of upper class in the classical era.

这所房子非常吸引我的眼球,它典雅的花园环绕着列柱廊。在罗马时代,列柱廊是富裕家庭住所的象征,在古代被视为上层阶级的象征。

The house of the Golden Cupids

The garden was also decorated with reliefs and marble sculptures, and was dedicated to the Egyptian gods. There was a painting of Anubis, god of the dead, here. The house is called in this way because Cupids is engraved on two gold medallions that decorate the portico.

花园里还装饰浮雕和大理石雕塑,是献给埃及众神的。这里有一幅死神阿努比斯的画。这座房子之所以叫金色丘比特,是因为丘比特像刻在装饰门廊的两个金质纪念章上。

Casa di marco lucrezio sulla via stabiana

Before visiting Pompeii, I did not make a specific travel plan so I just visited in the city aimlessly and entered the room that I thought beautiful. This house has a small garden with a marble fountain. The statue inside the fountain is Silenus, a companion of the god of wine Dionysus in Greek mythology. The wall of the house is decorated with fresco and on the floor, there is a delicate moisac diagram.

在参观庞贝城之前,我并没有制定具体的旅行计划,因此我只是漫无目的地参观了这座城市,然后进入中意的房间。这所房子里有一个大理石喷泉的小花园。喷泉内的雕像是西勒努斯(Silenus),即希腊神话中的酒神狄俄尼索斯的同伴。房屋的墙壁装饰有壁画,地板上有精美的水波纹图。

Lupanar

The interesting thing in Pompeii is when you cross one street by street, you could not find any modern elements in every corner of the city. Every piece of stone and brick in this city has the history of 2000 years. In this street corner, I found this building called Lupanar which stands for brothel in Roman word. The building was classified as brothel because many erotic paintings and graffis were found after excavations. Prostitution in ancient Rome was legal and licensed so it would not be a surprise to find a brothel at that time.

庞贝城的有趣之处在于,当你穿街过巷时,在城市的每个角落都找不到任何现代元素。这里的每块砖石都有2000年的历史。在这个街角,我发现了这座名为Lupanar的建筑,该建筑物意思是罗马词中的妓院。它被认为是妓院是因为在发掘后发现了许多色情画和涂鸦。古罗马的嫖娼是合法并且有营业执照,所以找到那个时期的妓院就不足为奇了。

Terme Stabiane

The Pompeians relaxed in the weekends not only in brothels but have spa as well. The Stabiane bath is the place for them to have their daily break in the spa. The baths culture of Roman Empire had a long history. This bath could be traced back to the 2nd century BC. The heating was guaranteed by a piping system in the walls and double floors that circulated the hot air coming from the furnaces and from braziers. 

庞贝人在周末不仅在妓院里放松身心,还会去浴场做水疗。 Stabiane浴是他们每天在水疗中心休息的地方。罗马帝国的浴场文化历史悠久。这个浴池的历史可以追溯到公元前2世纪。墙壁和双层地板中的管道系统保证了供热,该系统将来自炉子和火盆中的热空气进行循环。

Casa degli Epidii

This spectacular house was built in 2 century B.C. It belongs to Marcus Epidius Rufus so it is called house of Epidii. It draws my attenton due to its 16 doric columns in the center of the house. The columns are located in the atrium of Corinthian type which is widely applied in Athens but quite rare in Pompeii.

这个壮观的房子建于公元前2世纪,它属于Marcus Epidius Rufus,所以被称为Epidii的房子。房子中央有16个多立克圆柱,它因此吸引了我的注意。柱子所在的是科林斯式的中庭,在雅典广泛使用,但在庞贝城中很少见。

Forum

To see the most traditional building of Roman Empire, the Forum is always the best place. It is the core of daily life of the city and houses all the main public buildings for city administration and justice, business management, trade activities, and religious worships.

要参观罗马帝国最传统的建筑,广场始终是最好的地方。它是城市日常生活的核心,并设有所有主要的公共建筑,用于城市管理和司法系统,商业管理,贸易活动和宗教崇拜。

The Temple of Jupiter

For example, we could find this temple of Jupiter at the north end of the forum, built in mid-2nd century BC. Jupiter was the ruler of the gods and the protector of Rome so his temple was always the center of Roman Religion. Unfortunately, now we could simply imagine how it looked like because the only remaining on the square is the base and several columns.


例如,我们可以在广场北端看到这座朱比特神庙,该神庙建于公元前2世纪中叶。朱比特是众神的统治者和罗马的保护神,因此他的神庙始终是罗马宗教的核心。不过,现在我们只能简单地脑补一下它是什么样子了,因为广场上唯一剩下的就是基座和几列柱子。

Macellum

On the east of the forum, we could see the Macellum, the market of Pompeii. It is difficult to know the function of the buildings for me but the archeologists could judge it from the remains of cereals and fruits in the north side of the building and fish scales and bones in the middle of the courtyard. The entrance of the market could be recognized by the three marble columns at the left side of this picture.

在广场的东部可以看到Macellum,即庞贝的市场。对我来说很难知晓该建筑物的功能,但是考古学家根据建筑物北侧的谷物和水果以及院子中部的鱼鳞和骨头的残骸来判断它是一座市场。市场入口可以通过该图左侧的三个大理石柱来识别。

Archi onorari 

On the sides of the temple of Jupiter, there were two old honorary arches made of bricks. This arch dedicated to Drusus, son of Emperor Tiberius was built in the era of Tiberius (14-37 AD) near the temple of Fortuna Augusta. The arch together with many buildings represented the imperial cult. It is a form of state religion in which an emperor of Roman Empire are worshipped as demigods or deities. This is an effective tool for dictators to rule the country.

在朱比特神庙的侧面,有两个用砖砌成的荣誉拱门。这座献给Tiberius皇帝之子德鲁斯的拱门建于Tiberius时代(公元14-37年),靠近奥古斯都神庙。这座拱门与许多建筑物一起代表了对帝国的崇拜。这是一种国家宗教形式,罗马帝国皇帝被奉为半神或神。这是独裁者统治国家的有效工具。

Tempio della Fortuna Augusta

This is the temple dedicated to the Emperor Augustu. It has marble capitals and columns and with the altar at the front. It is also one example of the imperial worship throughout the Roman Empire. This kind of worship has left a deep impact to many people even after the empire collapsed. Many european rulers had claimed that they inherited the Roman empire but obviously there is no such a relationship at all.

这是献给奥古斯都皇帝的神庙。它装饰有大理石的柱头和柱子,祭坛位于神庙前。这个神庙也是整个罗马帝国崇拜的一个例子。即使在帝国崩溃后,这种崇拜也对许多人产生了深远的影响。许多欧洲统治者声称他们继承了罗马帝国的衣钵,但显然根本就没有这种关系。

The Amphitheatre of Pompeii

Another typical symbol of Roman city is the Amphitheatre. This one is the earliest Roman amphitheatre built of stone. It is located at the east side of the Via dell’Abbondanza. Its past represents the bloody gladiatorial culture of Roman Empire. Now it becomes a place for public event and concert.

古罗马城市的另一个典型标志是露天剧场。这是最早的用石头建造的罗马圆形剧场。它位于Abbondanza大街的东侧。它的过去代表着罗马帝国血腥的角斗士文化。现在它已成为举办公共活动和音乐会的地方。

Casa del Fauno

I totally spent more than 5 hours in Pompeii. Lastly I have to highlight this one, Casa del Fauno. It was one of the largest and the luxurious private residences in Pompeii. The house was named by the bronze statue of the dancing faun located in the impluvium, a basin for catching rainwater. Fauns are spirits of untamed woodland.

我在庞贝旅游总共花了5个多小时。最后我要特意提一下这个房子Casa del Fauno。它是庞贝最大的豪华私人住宅之一。这座房子的名字是由舞池中的青铜雕像福恩命名的。福恩是未驯服的森林精灵。

Alexander Mosaic, the Battle of Issus 

The House of the Faun covers nearly 3000 square metres and has two atriums, the Tuscan and the peristyle atrium. Its colonnaded gardens contain Ionic and Doric columns. The jewel of the crown for this house is the famous Alexander Mosaic, depicting the Battle of Issus in 333 BC between Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia. The mosaic is now preserved in the museum of Napoli so we could not see it here.

这个住宅占地近3000平方米,有两个中庭,托斯卡纳和长型柱式中庭。它的柱廊花园包含艾奥尼亚式和多立克式柱。这座房子里的吉光片羽就是著名的亚历山大马赛克地板镶嵌画,它描绘了公元前333年亚历山大大帝与波斯大流士三世之间的伊苏斯战役。该画现在保存在那不勒斯博物馆中,因此我们在这里看不到它。

The house 2000 years ago includes one kitchen, one living room and many bedrooms with furnitures. It is even equipped with a private bath system. Its owner must be a very wealthy person.

这个2000年前的房屋包括一个厨房,一个客厅和许多带家具的卧室。它甚至配备了完善的盆浴系统。它的所有者一定是一个富可敌国的人。

The Mount Vesuvius

This is the exit of the archeological park. The park is so large that it is difficult to cover every corner in the city but for most people it was enough for them to familiarize with the buildings of Roman empire. In this picture, we could see clearly the volcano Vesuvius that caused the ruin of the city. On one hand, it was a tragedy that the volcano was the murderer who had killed 20,000 people in the instant. However, on the other side, the volcano ash kept the original form of the city and Pompeii is the only city of Roman empire that is well preserved. So whether the volcano did it correct or not? Who knows ?! Let the history jusge it.

这是考古公园的出口。公园如此之大游客很难覆盖城市的每个角落,但对于大多数人来说,足够让他们熟悉罗马帝国的建筑了。在这张照片,我们可以清楚地看到导致这座城市毁灭的维苏威火山。一方面,这绝对是个悲剧,火山是瞬间杀死了20,000人的元凶。但是,另一方面,火山灰却完整地保留了该城市的原貌,并且庞贝城也是罗马帝国唯一一座保存完好的城市。那么,究竟是对还是错?还是让历史来判断吧。