Trip in Den Haag, the royal capital of the Netherlands

荷兰帝都海牙之旅

Den Haag is a city on the west coast of Netherlands bordering the North Sea. It’s well known for the International Court of Justice of the United Nations. The city’s name originates from the name ‘des Graven hage’ in the 15th century which means “The Count’s Wood”. When you travel in Netherlands, you could take one day to look at it. The city is not large and its public transportation is very convenient. Most people know that Amsterdam is the capital of Netherlands but they may not know that Den Haag is the royal capital and the seat of government.

海牙是荷兰西海岸与北海接壤的一座城市。 它以联合国的海牙国际法庭而闻名。 这座城市的名字来源于 15 世纪的名字“des Graven hage”,意思是“伯爵的森林”。 当你在荷兰旅行时可以花一天时间了解一下它的历史。这座城市不大,公共交通十分便利。相信大多数人都知道阿姆斯特丹是荷兰的首都,但可能不知道海牙却是皇家的首都和政府所在地。

I took the RandstadRail tram from Rotterdam to Den Haag central station in the sunny morning of September 7th 2020. It’s an historical city perfectly combined with modernity and history. The train station is in the city center, just a stone’s throw away from the area of government office. This area has an old history. Faraway at this side of road I could see some pedestrians walking slowly across the ancient arches. Occasionally, at the street corner, some trolley cars passed by me with a soft silvery tinkling. Here I could really feel a tinge of the old past.

2020 年 9 月 7 日阳光明媚的清晨,我从鹿特丹乘坐 RandstadRail 地铁前往海牙中央车站。这是一座完美结合现代与历史的古老名城。火车站就位于市中心,距政府办公区仅一步之遥。 这个地区有着悠久的历史。 路这边远远地遥望行人缓步穿过古老的拱门。 不经意间的转角,有轨电车与我擦身而过,发出柔和清脆的叮当声。 此刻一种莫名的历史沧桑感油然而生。

Statue King Willem II

When I travelled in European city, I always paid attention to every statue erected in public square. The figures that could not speak represented the history of the city or the country perfectly. The bronze equestrian statue of King William II at the square Buitenhof is a replica of the equestrian statue of King William II by the French sculptors Antonin Mercié and Victor Peter, which was erected in Place Guillaume II in Luxembourg in 1884. During the reign of King William II, the Netherlands became a parliamentary democracy with the new constitution of 1848. Behind the statue, it is the lake called Hofvijver. The houses around the square were the lovely traditional Belgium triangle houses.

行在欧洲之时,我总是着眼于广场上竖立的每一尊雕像。这些不会说话的塑像完美诠释了每一个城市或国家的历史。 Buitenhof广场上的这座威廉二世国王的骑马铜像是1884年在卢森堡纪尧姆二世广场上竖立的雕像复制品。法国雕塑家安东宁默西和维克多彼得设计的该雕塑。在威廉二世的统治期间荷兰在1848 年的新宪法下成为议会民主制国家。雕像后面是名为霍夫维耶弗的湖。广场周围环绕的民居是传统的比利时三角房子。

Hofvijver 

The most representative and inviting view of this city is the lake Hofvijver. In the middle of the lake, there is a small island with plants and trees. These ancient buildings with numerous small chimneys at the waterside are the government complex of Dutch republic since 1584. The city of Den Haag has a history of more than 700 years. Opposite to the lake, there is a piece of green land with long benches. Travelers could take a short rest under umbrage and look at the historical buildings in the surrounding. They kept the original appearance in medieval times.

这座城市最具代表性和吸引力的景观是霍夫维耶弗湖。 在湖的中央,有一个小岛,上面种满了植物和树木。 这些矗立在水边有众多小烟囱的古老建筑是自 1584 年以来荷兰共和国的政府建筑群。海牙这座城市足足已有 700 多年的历史。湖对面是一片绿地,布置着长凳。 游客可以在树影婆娑中稍作休息,环视周围保留了中世纪的原始外貌的历史建筑。

Mauritshuis

Another historic building in the lakeside is the art museum, Maurituis. The museum houses the Royal Cabinet of Paintings which consists of 854 objects, mostly Dutch Golden Age paintings. It was the residence of count John Maurice, the governor of Dutch Brazil, and the Prince of Nassau-Siegen in the 17th century.

湖边的另一座历史建筑是莫里斯艺术博物馆。该博物馆收藏了包括 854 件物品的皇家珍品内藏,其中主要是荷兰黄金时代的绘画。它曾经是 17 世纪荷属巴西总督以及拿骚-锡根亲王约翰·莫里斯伯爵的住所。

Girl with a Pearl Earring 

The most famous oil painting of this museum is the ‘Girl with a Pearl Earring’. It was created by the Dutch Golden Age painter Johannes Vermeer in 1665. It depicts a European girl wearing an exotic dress, an oriental turban, and a very large pearl as an earring. This painting is as famous as the ‘Mona Lisa’ since both young girls in each painting have an enigmatic smile on their beautiful faces. Vermeer has a wonderful mastery of light effect and he used chiaroscuro rather than line to create form. The reflection on her lips and on the earring show the effect of light on different surfaces. This painting is no doubt the centerpiece of the museum. Even faraway from the museum, the banner of this painting could be seen clearly.

这座博物馆中最著名的油画是《戴珍珠耳环的女孩》。 它由荷兰黄金时代的画家约翰内斯·维米尔(Johannes Vermeer)于 1665 年创作。它描绘了一个身着异国情调的连衣裙,头戴东方头巾,以及一颗巨大珍珠作为耳环的欧洲女孩。这幅画与《蒙娜丽莎》一样著名。这两幅画中的年轻女孩美丽的脸上都挂着一丝神秘的微笑。维米尔对光线效果有着出色的掌控,他使用明暗对比而不是线条来塑造外形。女孩的嘴唇和耳环上的反射展示了光线在不同表面上的效果。这幅画无疑是博物馆的镇馆之宝。即使在远处,也能清晰看到这幅画的宣传横幅。

Binnenhof

Alongside the Mauritshuis, there is an ancient path of bricks leading towards the quiet inner courtyard of Binnenhof. The Binnenhof is a series of government complex. It houses the meeting place of both houses of the States General of the Netherlands and the Ministry of General Affairs. The houses look like the medieval gothic castles. They were built in 13th century and were the oldest Parliament buildings in the world. Even nowadays they are still in use and the North Wing is still the meeting place of the Upper House. The coat arm of Dutch Republic and the House of Nassau is a blue checkered shield with a lion grasping a sword in one hand and a bundle of arrows in the other. This kind of lion could be observed frequently in the Dutch royal building, for example on the lintel of the arch.

在莫里斯艺术博物馆旁边,有一条铺满红砖的古老道路通往安静的内院。Binnenhof 内院是一系列政府建筑。它是荷兰国家议会和参众两院的议会场所。这些看起来像中世纪的哥特式城堡的建筑建于 13 世纪,是世界上最古老的议会建筑。 时至今日,它们仍在正常使用,建筑群的北翼仍是上议院的议会场所。荷兰共和国和拿骚家族的徽章是一个蓝色的格子底以及一只狮子一手握着剑,另一只手握着一束箭。这种造型的狮子经常出现在荷兰皇家建筑中,例如本照片中拱门的门楣上。

Ridderzaal

This area has been the center of Dutch politics for many centuries. The cathedral like building in the inner court yard is called Ridderzaal or Hall of Knights. It was completed in 1280 and used for festival occasions in the history. Only in the 20th century, the Hall of Knights was repaired and became the main venue used for the congress and important meetings. The interior is decorated delicately with nineteen wall hangings bearing the arms of the twelve Dutch provinces and the overseas parts of the Kingdom. The Dutch parliamentary democracy consists of three parts: execution, legislation, and jurisdiction. For legislation, the Dutch parliament is made up of two chambers: the 150-seat, directly-elected lower house (House of Representatives) and the 75-seat upper house (Senate). Both houses traditionally meet in the hall of Ridderzaal on the third Tuesday of September.

几个世纪以来这片区域一直是荷兰政治的中心。 这座内院里的大教堂式建筑被称为 Ridderzaal 或骑士厅。 它于1280年完工,历史上曾用于庆祝节日。 直到20世纪,骑士厅经过修复,成为两院会议以及一些重要会议的场所。 它的内部装饰精美,共有十九个壁挂,上面挂着荷兰十二个省和海外地区的徽章。荷兰的议会民主由三部分组成:行政、立法和司法。 在立法方面,荷兰议会由两院组成:150 个席位的下议院(众议院)和 75 个席位的上议院(参议院)。两院传统上每年 9 月的第三个星期二在这里的大厅举行会议。

At the moment I was standing on the brick paved ground. Behind me, it’s the north wing of the government parliament. It has a beautiful arcade of renaissance style. There is small gate called Stadhouderspoort leading to the outside. It was a beautiful sunny morning in autumn and some Dutch people took bicycles and passed through the gate cozily. In the history, the gate was only available for the chief magistrate (stadholder) and after 1795 it was allowed to be used by everyone.

此刻我正站在内庭砖砌的地面上。在我身后,是政府议会的北翼。 它有个美丽的文艺复兴风格的拱廊。一个名为Stadhouderspoort的小门通向外侧。这是一个阳光明媚的美好秋日早晨,一些荷兰人骑着自行车悠然穿过这座拱门。 历史上,这座城门只供城市的管理者(stadholder)使用,只是1795年后才允许所有民众使用。

Noordeinde Palace

The political system of the Netherlands is a constitutional monarchy, similar to Great Britain. King acts as the head of state. Noordeinde Palace is one of the three official palaces of the Dutch royal family. It was used as the official workplace of King Willem-Alexander since 2013. The palace originated as a medieval farmhouse, which was converted into a spacious residence in 1533. This neoclassical palace looks modest and simple, hiding among the residential houses and shops. After the restoration in 1984, the Palace became the Dutch Monarch’s workplace and office. When I arrived, the flag at the back of the house was raised. It means that the King was working in the office that day.

荷兰的政治制度是类似于英国的君主立宪制。国王担任国家元首。 Noordeinde Palace是荷兰王室的三个官方宫殿之一。 从2013 年起,威廉-亚历山大国王就用它作为的官方办公场所。这座宫殿起源于中世纪的农舍,1533 年被改建为宽敞的住宅。这座新古典主义的宫殿看起来质朴简单,有种大隐隐于市的味道。 1984年修复后,它成为荷兰君主的工作场所和办公室。当我抵达时,房子后面的旗帜已然升起说明国王这天在办公室里勤政为民。

In front of the palace it is the bronze statue of William I of Orange. This statue was erected in 1845 and designed by a French sculptor. William the prince of Orange was the founder of the House of Orange-Nassau. He played a critical role in the independence of the Netherlands. He organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule during the Eighty Years’ War and was assassinated for many times due to this reason. Several members of the Orange-Nassau house reigned the Netherlands Republic as governor or stadholder. After 1815, the Netherlands Republic became a monarchy under the House of Orange-Nassau.

宫殿前是奥朗日威廉一世的铜像。这座雕像由一位法国雕塑家设计建于 1845 年。奥朗日王子威廉是奥朗日-拿骚家族的创始人。他在荷兰的国家独立中发挥了关键作用。在八十年战争期间他曾组织了多次荷兰人反抗西班牙统治的起义,并因此多次被暗杀。奥朗日-拿骚家族的几位成员后来以总督的身份统治着荷兰共和国。1815年后,荷兰共和国成为奥朗日-拿骚家族下的君主制国家。

The Peace Palace

The iconic building in Den Haag is the Peace Palace. It houses the International Court of Justice which is the principal judicial body of the United Nations. In 1903, the American steel magnate Andrew Carnegie donated US$1.5 million to build it. Laterally, an eternal peace flame was installed in front of its gates to reminder people the importance of peace. During the 19th century, the idea of peace flourished in the world. The “First Peace Conference” was hold in Den Haag to call for global disarmament, international jurisdiction and arbitration through the establishment of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and International Court of Justice. The Peace palace was built to house these organizations under the environment. Although it is an UN building, you could still book a tour online to visit the inside.

海牙的标志性建筑当属和平宫。它是联合国的主要司法机构国家法庭的所在地。1903年,美国钢铁大王安德鲁·卡奈基捐资150万美元建造了这座建筑。后来它的大门前安置了永恒的和平火焰,以提醒人们和平的重要性。19世纪,和平理念在世界范围内盛行。 “第一次和平会议”即由此在海牙召开,呼吁通过设立仲裁法院和国际法院,实现全球化裁军、国际管辖和仲裁。 和平宫就是在这种国际环境下建造而成。虽然它是联合国大楼,但仍然可以在线预订游览并参观内部。

Nieuwe Kerk 

In the city center of Den Haag, I could still find some historical buildings although most of items are so modern. The New church is a Dutch Baroque Protestant church built in 1649 after the Great Church was too small to hold so many devotees. The church has an abundance of wood carvings from the 17th century, an oak roof construction and stained glass windows. Maybe because of Protestant belief, the outlook of this church is not like the traditional church, it has a weird hexagon shape instead.

在海牙市中心,尽管如今举目都是现代元素但仍然可以看到一些历史建筑。这座新教堂是一座荷兰巴洛克式新教教堂,建于 1649 年。当时的主教堂太小,无法容纳这么多信徒故此诞生了这座教堂。 教堂装饰有大量的 17 世纪木雕、橡木屋顶和彩色玻璃窗。也许是因为新教的缘故,这座教堂的外观并不像传统的教堂,而是奇怪的六边形。

The grave of Baruch Spinoza

From 1588 to 1672, it was a great period for Netherlands called The Dutch Golden Age. During this period, Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in Europe. The most important Dutch philosopher at that time must be Spinoza. In his book Ethics, Spinoza discusses his beliefs of three kinds of knowledge, the knowledge of experiences, the knowledge involves reasoning plus emotions, and the knowledge of God. His philosophy system is called Spinozism. If I didn’t come here, I would not know that such a great person was buried in this church. The Greek letters on his grave are ‘Terra hic Benedicti de Spinoza in Ecclesia Nova olim sepulti ossa tegit’ which means ‘The earth here covers the bones of Benedictus de Spinoza once buried in the New Church.’

1588 年到 1672 年间,这是属于荷兰的一个伟大时期,被称为荷兰黄金时代。 在这期间,荷兰的贸易、科学和艺术在欧洲广受赞誉的。当时最重要的荷兰哲学家一定是斯宾诺莎。斯宾诺莎在他的《伦理学》一书中讨论了他对三种知识的信仰,即经验知识、涉及推理和情感的知识以及对上帝的认识。他的哲学体系被称为斯宾诺莎主义。如果我不是恰巧路过这里,也就不会知晓这位伟大的哲学家就埋葬在这个教堂里。 他坟墓上的希腊字母是“Terra hic Benedicti de Spinoza in Ecclesia Nova olim sepulti ossa tegit”,意思是“这片土地覆盖了曾经埋葬在新教堂的斯宾诺莎的骸骨。”

Grote of Sint-Jacobskerk

The oldest building in Den Haag must be the Great church built in 13th century. Most of its structure are made of brick. It has a symbolic six-sided high tower up to 93 meter. On the top of the tower, the big bells’ history could be traced back to 17th century. Nowadays this church is not used for religious activities, except for royal baptisms and weddings. Members of the House of Orange-Nassau like King Willem-Alexander and his daughter Princess Catharina-Amalia have been baptized there. It was three o’clock in the afternoon at the moment of my arrival. I still remember that I passed by the church and looked up the brown tower against the blue sky in the autumn. Den Haag is not a city famous of tourism but it will still leave something in my memory.

海牙最古老的建筑当属建于13世纪的大教堂。它的大部分结构都是用砖砌成的并且有一个高达93米的标志性六边形高塔。塔顶大钟的历史可以追溯到17世纪。如今这座教堂除了皇家洗礼和婚礼外,不再用于宗教活动。奥朗日-拿骚家族的成员,如威廉-亚历山大国王和他的女儿凯瑟琳娜-阿玛莉亚公主,都曾在此受洗。时至今日仍然会回味那个秋天的下午三点,我恰好经过大教堂,仰望着蓝天映衬着棕色的塔楼。海牙不是一个以旅游业闻名的城市,但它仍然会在我的记忆中依稀留下一些掠影。

Old City Hall

The city hall today used today is a very modern building which is a bit boring however it’s recommended to visit the Old City Hall which is a Renaissance style building near the Great Church. It is the former seat of the city’s government, and still keeps a place where residents hold wedding ceremonies, and where the Royal family register their family births. On the façade, there is letter ANNO 1565 which means the city hall was built in 1565. The 5 statues on the roof top depict “Faith”, “Hope”, “Love”, “Strength”, and “Justice”. They were made by the Hague sculptor Jan Baptist Xavery before 1742.

如今使用的海牙市政厅是一座非常现代的建筑略显沉闷所以特别建议到大教堂附近的这座文艺复兴风格老市政厅参观。这里曾是市政府所在地,至今仍保留着居民举行婚礼和皇室登记出生的功能。它的正面有ANNO 1565字样,意思是市政厅建于1565年。屋顶上的5尊雕像分别代表了“信仰”、“希望”、“爱”、“力量”和“正义”。 它们由海牙雕塑家 Jan Baptist Xavery 在 1742 年之前陆续制作。

The city center of Den Haag is just a small area for travel. In the afternoon, I wandered around the outskirt of the city. Netherlands has perfect city plans. There are so many public parks and open spaces in the suburb. The life here is more comfortable compared to other crowded metropolis in the world. As we know, New York has a large central park but it only serves better the rich people living around it. The urban design in Netherlands is much better since everyone could easily visit the park which is near their houses and relax themselves fully on the weekend.

海牙市中心只是一个适合旅行的小快区域。下午我乘兴在城郊闲游。荷兰有完美的城市规划。海牙郊区有众多公园和开放空间。与世界上其他拥挤的大都市相比,这里的生活更加舒适令人向往。众所周知,纽约市中心有一个大型的中央公园,但它只是为周围的富人提供更好的服务。荷兰的城市设计则更加完善,每个人都可以轻松地游览自己居所附近的公园并在周末充分放松自己。

Clingendael

Clingendael park is one of the most beautiful park located between The Hague and Wassenaar. Since the sixteenth century, various garden and landscape architects have contributed towards its look and atmosphere. In the 19th century the garden architect Zocher replaced the garden’s original French design by the English landscape style. ‘Clingendael’ is the name of the 17th-century manor house in this picture. It means valley in the dunes. Nowadays the manor houses the Clingendael Institute.

Clingendael 公园是位于海牙和瓦塞纳尔之间的美丽的公园。 自十六世纪以来,各种花园和景观设计师为其景观加砖添瓦。19世纪期间,园林建筑师佐赫以英式景观风格取代了花园原有的法式设计。 “Clingendael”是这张照片中 17 世纪庄园的名称,意为沙丘中的山谷。 如今,庄园内设有 Clingendael 研究所。

This park is extremely spacious. Behind the manor, there is a large playground and field where children play and families enjoy picnics. Large pieces of meadows allow the lambs browsing on grass freely and leisurely. The world in Netherlands is placid and peaceful. I can always discover some wild animals living together with human beings harmoniously.

这个公园非常宽敞。庄园后面有一个大型游乐场和田野,供孩子们玩耍和家庭野餐。小羊们在大片的草地上悠闲自在地觅食,小日子悠哉悠哉。荷兰的生活总体平静祥和,这里总能发现一些与人类和谐相处的野生动物。

This is one street view of Den Haag. There are not so many tourist attractions in this city so I have plenty of time to observe how the local people live. Like other cities in Netherlands, bicycle is one important transportation for them. Also, Dutch people are friendly and can speak English very well. In deed, English is widely used in this country. For tourists, they will not feel difficult when they come here. Although there is nothing special in this city, I think it is still recommended to visit it in a relaxing manner and enjoy one common leisure day in the midst of your rushed trip.

这是海牙一处街景。这个城市并没有那么多旅游景点,所以我有足够的时间来观察当地人的生活。与荷兰其他城市一样,自行车是他们的重要交通工具。 此外,荷兰人也很友好,英语极其流利。英语在这个国家真的是被广泛使用。对于游客来说,来到这里旅游自然不会觉得困难。虽然这座城市并没有什么特别之处,但我认为还是建议在匆忙的旅途中抽空悠闲地游览一番,享受平凡一天的休闲时光。

Rotterdam’s modernism from past to present

鹿特丹现代主义的昨日今昔

Rotterdam is an important harbor connecting to North Sea. Unfortunately, it was completely destroyed in the World War II and rebuilt totally based on a modernist urban plan after the war. For tourists, if you want to explore the landscape of medieval city, it would not be your best choice definitely. It’s true that Rotterdam’s urban landscape is totally different from other cities in the Netherlands. However, in this city you could discover how it revived from the damages of the war tenaciously and how the architects modernists reinvented this city in the past 70 years.

鹿特丹是连接北海的重要港口。 遗憾的是它在二战中被彻底摧毁,战后按照现代城市规划进行了彻底重建。 对于游客而言,如果你想探索中世纪城市的风景,这里绝对不是你的最佳选择。鹿特丹的城市景观诚然与荷兰其他城市大相径庭。 然而在这座城市,你会体会到它是如何顽强地从战争的破坏中缓步恢复并且目睹现代主义建筑师是如何在过去 70 年里重塑这座城市。

I visited Rotterdam in September 2020 after my trip of windmills in Kinderdijk. This is my first view of the city from the south bank of Nieuwe Maas which is a distributary of the Rhine River, and a former distributary of the Maas River. Rotterdam has the nicknames ‘Gateway to Europe’ because the river Nieuwe Maas connects the North Sea and the heart of Western Europe (like the highly industrialized area Ruhr) directly. Most of the buildings at the riverside are closed aligned skyscrapers. Rotterdam is famous for the excellent urban design and plan. In 2015, it was crowned the best urbanized city in Europe.

在小孩堤防的风车之旅之后,我于 2020 年 9 月游览了鹿特丹。 这是我从新马斯河南岸对这座城市第一眼印象。这里是莱茵河的支流,也是马斯河的一个分流。这条新马斯直接连接北海和西欧的心脏比如高度工业化的鲁尔区故此鹿特丹有“通往欧洲的门户”的绰号。河边的大部分建筑都是紧密排列的摩天大楼。鹿特丹以卓越的城市设计和规划而闻名,2015 年被评为欧洲最佳市政规划城市。

Erasmusbrug 

The icon of city landscape is of course the Erasmus bridge stretching over the river. It is named by the city’s famous scholar Desiderius Erasmus and has a nickname ‘the swan’ due to its elegant shape. The bridge was designed by the Dutch architect Ben van Berkel and completed in 1996. It is a masterpiece of the urban modernism. The most awe-inspiring element is the span of the bridge, totally 802 meters.

鹿特丹的标志景观当属横跨新马斯河的伊拉斯谟大桥。 它由当地著名学者德西德里乌斯·伊拉斯谟(Desiderius Erasmus)命名,因其优雅的造型而有“天鹅”的绰号。 这座桥由荷兰建筑师本·范伯克尔设计,于1996年竣工,是城市现代主义建筑的杰作。 最令人惊叹的是这座桥的跨度,全长802米。

It is a combined cable-stayed and bascule bridge. I walked from the southside of the river to the northside through the bridge enthusiastically. Under my feet, it is the busy water way for thousands of boats passing everyday. It has two platforms for pedestrians to have a rest and overlook the city. I took this picture under the bridge’s blue pylon which is extremely high, up to 139 meters. This single pylon is positioned on southside of the river with a backward lean and supported by 16 pairs of front stay cables and 2 sets of back stay cables.

它是一座斜拉式开合桥。我兴致勃勃地从河的南岸穿过大桥走到北岸。我的脚下便是过尽千帆的繁忙水道。大桥上有两个平台供行人休息和俯瞰整个城市。这张照片是在蓝色桥塔下拍摄的,桥塔很高,高达139米。这座唯一的桥塔位于河的南侧,并向后倾斜,由16对前拉索和2组后拉索支撑。

Maritime District

In the north of the Erasmus bridge, it is the Maritime District of the city. Here the tourists could experience why Rotterdam was the most important harbor in the world. Dutch Republic used to be a maritime superpower in the 16th and 17th century. The Maritime museum that records the origin of Dutch navigation is also located in this district. This ancient brigantine harbored in the Leuvenhaven which is the commercial port nowadays represents the glorious history of this maritime empire who ruled South America (modern Guiana and Brazil), south Africa, west Africa (modern Ghana), and North America (New York) in the 17th century.

在伊拉斯谟大桥的北岸便是是鹿特丹的海事区。 在这里,游客可以感受到鹿特丹缘何是世界上最重要的港口。荷兰共和国曾经是 16 世纪和 17 世纪的海上超级大国。记录荷兰航海渊源的海事博物馆也位于该区。这艘古老的双桅船停泊在如今的鲁汶港展览,它代表着这个17世纪统治南美(圭亚那和巴西)、南非、西非(加纳)和北美洲(纽约)的海上帝国的辉煌历史。

There are numerous boats, cargo ships, and gantry cranes at the pier. You could even get a Water taxi service like taking a bus normally. Overseas trade was always a traditional cornerstone of the Dutch economy. Rotterdam acted as a key role of connecting Netherlands with other parts of the world. From 1962 until 2004, it was the world’s busiest port by annual cargo tonnage. The port stretches over a distance of more than 40 kilometers so when you stood at the pier at the Maritime District and stared at the far west end, you could catch the view of hustle and bustle of those dockworkers under the glow of the setting sun.

这个码头内有众多小船、货船和龙门起重机。游客甚至可以像正常乘坐公共汽车一样获得水上出租车服务。海外贸易一直是荷兰经济的基石。 鹿特丹在连接荷兰与世界其他地区方面发挥了关键作用。从 1962 年到 2004 年,按年货物吨位吞吐计算,它是世界上最繁忙的港口。 整个港口绵延40多公里,站在海事区的码头,向西遥望着远处天边的尽头,夕阳余晖下码头工人络绎不绝。

In Netherlands, when you are free, you could always take your time to stroll along the river banks. The cities and villages in this countries are intersected by numerous canals and rivers. The Maritime District is also a piece of land divided by some artificial water ways. The new port and old port are connected with each other by the water ways. There are different types of boats wandering on the occupied river, barges, dinghies, and fishing boats assembling on this narrow water way. For Rotterdam, the life on water is so busy as well!

在荷兰,空闲之余亦可在河边悠然漫步。这个国家的城市和村庄由许多河道和河流交错相连。海事区也是一块被人工水道分割的土地。新港与旧港之间有水路相通。熙熙攘攘的河流上游荡着各式各样的船只,各种驳船、小艇和渔船皆聚集在这条狭窄的水道上。对鹿特丹居民来说,水上生活也是如此忙碌!

Oude Haven

Although most of the old buildings are destroyed during the war, you could still find traces of past in the Oude Haven, i.e. old port. Many historic ships with stained and spotted hulls were narrating the origin of the city silently. The old port is the place where history and modernity fully unite. The building white glazed bricks at the background is the ‘White House’ built between 1897 and 1898 in the Art Nouveau style. At that time, it was the tallest building in the Netherlands. Also it was the only building remaining in the Oude Haven after the bombardment of German air force. In comparison with the surrounding uniform modernity, it is indeed a unique existence.

尽管大部分老建筑在战争中被毁,但在老港口游客仍然可以追寻昔日的似水年华。许多船体斑驳历史悠久的船只都在默默讲述这座城市的古老历史。老港口也是历史与现代充分融合的地方。背景里这座白色琉璃砖的建筑是建于1897年至1898年间的新艺术风格的鹿特丹白宫。 当时它是荷兰最高的建筑。 它也是老港口德国空军轰炸后唯一剩下的建筑物。与周围一致的现代风格对比,它确实是那独一无二的存在。

The old port is a popular place for locals to meet and have a fun night life. There are so many bars and restaurants here with which the tourists will feel difficult to choose. I was sitting at the terrace of one of the restaurants at the waterside and enjoyed the panoramic view of the port. The ripples under the sunsets and the reflected shadows were so appealing.

旧港口是当地人聚会和享受美好夜生活的绝佳场所。这里遍地酒吧餐馆,游客自然会很难抉择。我此刻坐在水边一家餐厅的露台上,欣赏着港口的全景。 夕阳下的涟漪,倒映的疏影,是如此动人令人回味。

Regentessebrug

Another building surviving in the second world war is this bridge called Regentesse. When you traverse the waterways in the Maritime District, you will notice this bridge which architecture style is obviously different with the surroundings. This bridge made of Granite, cast iron, and sandstone was built in 1898. At that time, Art Nouveau was booming and the architecture style would approach modernism gradually however it still kept some decorative elements of the past. For example, you could easily find the sculpture of a small dolphin on each pillar of the bridge. In addition, the candlesticks invested with copper and the four bronze lions impressed me as well. When I walked on the bridge and touched the historical balustrade, I felt that It was really a miracle that it could withstand the damage of bombs and live until today.

在第二次世界大战中幸存下来的另一座建筑是这座名为 Regentesse 的桥。 当你横穿海事区的水路时,你会注意到这座建筑风格与周围截然不同的桥。这座由花岗岩、铸铁和砂岩制成的桥建于1898年。当时新艺术运动蓬勃发展,建筑风格也逐渐过渡到现代主义,但仍保留了一些历史上的装饰元素。例如你可以一眼发现在桥底的每根柱子上都有一只小海豚的雕塑。另外镀铜的烛台和四只青铜狮子也给我留下了深刻的印象。 桥上凭栏而触,我不由得感叹这座桥能经受住炸弹的破坏坚挺到今日着实是一个奇迹。

Kubuswoningen

Rotterdam’s modernism in architecture could be well reflected by some ‘bizarre’ and creative designs in the city center. When you pass by them occasionally, you will utter an ‘omg’ exclamation definitely. The yellow Cube Houses in the photo are one of the city’s most iconic attractions that impress the tourists all around the world. These cubes designed by architect Piet Blom are tilted 54.7 degrees and are optimized to create the available space. The design represents a village within a city, where each house represents a tree, and all the houses together, a forest. They are still the private houses. If you are really curious of its interior, you may explore the Show Cube Museum.

鹿特丹市中心的一些“奇异古怪”和创造性的建筑设计最能彰显它的现代主义。 当你无意间邂逅它们之时,一定会不由地发出“omg”的感叹。照片中的黄色立方体房屋就是是这座城市最具标志性的景点之一,也给世界各地的游客留下了深刻的印象。 这些由建筑师 Piet Blom 设计的立方体倾斜 54.7 度,并经过优化以创造更多的可用空间。 这种设计代表了城市中的一个村庄,每个房子都象征一棵树,所有的立方体房子汇聚起来就代表了一片森林。它们仍是私人住宅,如果真的对它的内部结构感到好奇,您你可以参观展示立方体的博物馆。

Markthal

Another striking building to be mentioned must be the Markthal or market hall. Look at its ostentatious appearance! It has a shiny steel façade covered with glass that makes it look like a huge mirror. The shape is designed like a tennis racket. You could hardly imagine that this huge building which size is 40 m high, 70 m wide and 120 m long is just a indoor market. It is similar to the San Miguel Market in Madrid but it is really too large with more than 100 stalls selling from fresh bread to delicious cheese, fish, vegetable and poultry and even flowers and plants. Tourists could taste the local foods here and experience the exciting local life.

另一位闪亮登场的建筑当属Markthal 市场大厅。 就看看它那张扬浮夸的外表! 它有一个闪亮的钢制立面,上面覆盖着玻璃,使它看起来像一面巨大的平面镜。它的总体形状设计得像网球拍。你很难想象这座高40米、宽70米、长120米的巨大建筑只是一个室内市场。它类似于马德里的圣米格尔市场,但它确实太庞大了,里面共计有 100 多个摊位,从新鲜面包到美味的奶酪、鱼、蔬菜和家禽,甚至花卉和植物,应有尽有。 游客可以在这里品尝当地美食,体验当地精彩纷呈的生活。

The vaulted interior is covered by a large mural painting, consisting of many small glass mosaics. Its theme is cornucopia which represents a symbol of plenty consisting of a goat’s horn overflowing with flowers, fruit, and corn in the Greek mythology. This modern art work is designed by artists Arno Coenen and Iris Roskam. It shows colorful images of so many foods and fruits alongside flowers and insects. The enlarged images are composed by Pixar software and printed onto perforated aluminum panels.

市场的拱形内部覆盖着一幅巨型壁画,它由许多玻璃小马赛克组成。它的主题就是希腊神话中代表着丰盛象征的开满了鲜花、水果和玉米的山羊的角。这件现代艺术作品由艺术家 Arno Coenen 和 Iris Roskam 设计。它展示了许多色彩缤纷的食物和水果以及鲜花和昆虫的图像。这些放大的图像由 Pixar 软件合成并打印在穿孔铝板上。

Grote of Sint-Laurenskerk 

Although Rotterdam is a modernized city, there are still a few historic buildings in the city center. The Grote of Sint-Laurenskerk is a Protestant church built between 1449 and 1525. It is the only remnant of the medieval city of Rotterdam. It’s close to the market hall, its high tower is easy to be identified. This church is a special symbol of Rotterdam’s history. In the Middle Ages, citizenship of Rotterdam could be purchased by contributing 3000 stones to the construction of the church tower. It also represents the resilience of Rotterdam’s people who rebuilt this city from the rubbles of the second World War.

鹿特丹虽是一座现代化城市,但市中心仍保留有几座历史建筑。 圣劳伦斯克就是一座建于 1449 年至 1525 年之间的新教教堂。它是鹿特丹唯一的中世纪城市遗迹。它靠近市场大厅,代表性的高塔很容易识别。 这座教堂在鹿特丹历史也具有特殊意义。中世纪的居民可以通过捐赠3000块石头建造教堂塔楼来获得鹿特丹的公民身份。同时它也象征了鹿特丹人民从第二次世界大战的废墟中重建这座城市坚强不屈的精神。

Behind the church it is a small square full of dense greenery. Dutch urban plan is really fantastic. Although it’s a populated country with limited land space, I could always find some lawns and trees in every corner of the city. It was a warm afternoon. Many people walked leisurely around this area.

教堂后面是一个小广场,满是茂密的绿色植物。 荷兰的城市规划真是令人赞不绝口。 虽然这是一个人口稠密的国家,土地空间有限,但我总能在城市的每个角落发现一些草坪和树木。 那是一个温暖的下午。 许多人这一带信步闲庭。

In this square I found this bronze statue dedicated to Desiderius Erasmus, the Dutch philosopher who is considered one of the greatest scholars of the northern Renaissance. He lived in the time of European religious Reformation in 16th century and promoted syncretism, involving the merging or assimilation of several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion. His most notable work is ‘In Praise of Folly’ which attack on superstitions and on the Western Church satirically. This statue was designed by the Dutch sculptor Hendrick de Keyser in 17th century.

这个广场上还树立了这座纪念德西德里乌斯·伊拉斯谟的青铜雕像。这位荷兰哲学家被认为是北方文艺复兴时期最伟大的学者。 他生活在 16 世纪欧洲宗教改革时期,提倡融合或同化几个原本离散的宗教神学传统的融合主义。 他最著名的作品是“愚人颂”,讽刺地抨击了封建迷信和西方教会。这座雕像由荷兰雕塑家 Hendrick de Keyser 于 17 世纪设计。

Stadhuis Rotterdam

In the city center, another old building surviving the second world war is the city hall of Rotterdam. It was built between 1914 and 1940 as per Queen Wilhelmina’s request. It has a symmetrical design like a French palace and is designed in a Renaissance style that is not the typical style of Dutch city halls. The most impressive part of the building is the 70-meter high tower including a clock, a bell, and an angel of peace at the top. Tourists could enter the court yard through the arch entrance and look at the surroundings.

在市中心,另一座在二战中幸存下来的老建筑是鹿特丹市政厅。 它根据威廉女王的要求建于 1914 年至 1940 年间。它具有法国宫殿般的对称设计并采用文艺复兴风格,与荷兰典型的市政厅设计风格完全不同。这座建筑最令人印象深刻的就是70米高的塔楼,塔顶有一个大钟和一个代表和平的天使。游客可以通过拱门进入庭院参观。

Het park

Close to the city center, I passed by a small piece of park with ornate gardens by the water. Het park is designed in 1852 by Dutch architect Zocher who was inspired by the English country style. There are small small pavilions and BBQ spots here. It’s a perfect place for family having a outdoor party. The park is at the corner of the observation tower Euromast.

在老城区我顺路经过了一个装饰有华丽的花园的水畔公园。这座Het 公园由荷兰建筑师 Zocher 于 1852 年设计,他的灵感来源与英国乡村风格。这里遍布小亭子和烧烤点,适合家庭聚会。 公园位于Euromast观景塔的脚下。

Euromast is a modernism tower with height of 184.6 meters. It used to be the highest building of the Netherlands. Tourists could take lifts to the top of the tower and enjoy the panoramic view of Rotterdam. All the landscapes of row-upon-row skyscrapers, slender Erasmus bridge, scenic Het park, gushing Mass river are within my eyes. Indeed, from aerial view of city’s skyline, all the buildings no matter near or faraway are so modern!

Euromast 是一座高度为 184.6 米现代风格的观景塔。它曾是荷兰最高的建筑。 游客可以乘电梯到塔顶,欣赏鹿特丹的全景。鳞次栉比的摩天大楼、修长的伊拉斯谟大桥、风景秀丽的Het公园、川流不息的马斯河,一切尽在我眼前。 居高临下鸟瞰城市的天际线,所有的建筑无论远近都是如此现代!

Westersingel

I have spent one day in Rotterdam. Before I left the city, I remembered one more charming layout of this city is the canal lined with lawns on each side. The Westersingel is located near the Central Station and it’s a short canal decorated with old trees and vegetations. I could enjoy the view of modernism sculptures along this pretty canal and walk all the way towards the train station. During the second half of the nineteenth century, the city became overpopulated and the environment was unhealthy to live in. The Westersingel canal was dug as part of a water project in order to improve the quality of the surface water in the city. This was an effective way of tackling deadly diseases such as cholera.

我在鹿特丹度过了美好一天。 在临行之际想起这座城市的另一个温馨的城市布局就是两旁种满了草坪的运河。Westersingel运河位于中央火车站附近,是一条用古树和植被装饰的小运河。我沿着这条美丽的运河一路欣赏现代主义雕塑直达火车站。在 19 世纪下半叶,鹿特丹人口过剩,居住环境不佳。为了改善城市地表水的质量,市政府进行了Westersingel 运河的挖掘工作并作为供水项目的一部分。这同时也是应对霍乱等靠脏水传染的致命疾病的有效方法。

Centraal Station

At the end of the Westersingel canal, it’s the central station of Rotterdam under feet of high-rises and it’s the time to say goodbye to this lovely city. Compared with the black-and-white photos taken 100 years ago, all the things, buildings, and landscapes have experienced a total metamorphosis except the big clock on the front façade and the letters ‘Centraal Station’. Indeed, war had inflicted pains and damages on the old city but also gave a rebirth to the vibrant new city. The modern Rotterdam is like a volant phoenix, reviving from burnt ashes.

在 Westersingel 运河的尽头,高楼大厦脚下就是鹿特丹的中央车站,是时候与这座可爱的城市道别了。 与100年前的黑白照片相比,除了正立面的大钟和“中央车站”字样外,所有的事物、背景建筑和景观都发生了彻底的蜕变。战争无疑给这座老城带来了巨大的痛苦和毁灭,但也让充满活力的新城就此重建。现代鹿特丹就像一只展翅欲飞的凤凰,涅槃重生。