Genoa is one important port in the Liguria region. From 12th century to 15 century, it was the most powerful maritime countries in Europe and controlled the routes of commercial trade in Mediterranean. At that time, it was the most properous city in the world. Nowadays, the city inherited the old tradition and travelling in its historical center and the port, I could still get a glimpse of the remaining glory of the city.
I took the train from Ventimigia, the town in the French Italien border and arrived at this city in the afternoon of July 18, 2020. This was the Genova Piazza Principe railway station located in the west of city.
This is the statue of Columbus near the train station. This great navigator who completed the voyages across the Atlantic Ocean was born in Genoa in 1451. In this statue, his left hand rests on an anchor while his right hand is on the shoulder of an American woman holding a cross in the right hand. At each of the four corners of the base, there are four statues, representing Piety, Science, Constancy and Prudence.
Genoa’s historic centre is in a maze of squares and narrow alleys. These buildings are extremely close to each other so it is very difficult to take the picture of their façade. This is the Via Balbi built by the Genoese aristocracy during the Renaissance. The famous Royal Palace of Genoa is on this street. The most interesting thing in Genoa is to cross numerous narrow passages and explore the ancient palaces one by one. In this picture, the old building is the university of Genoa designed by the famous architect Bartolomeo Bianco.
Another street that could best represent Genoa is the Via Giuseppe Garibaldi. This street together with the Via Balbi and many palaces in the city was listed as the UNESCO World Heritage Site with the name of ‘ Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli’ in 2006. The renaissance and Baroque palaces built from the late 16th and early 17th centuries marked the glorious history of the Republic of Genoa. When I walked to and fro along this street, I was fascinated by the historical and artistical architectures and the sweet-sounding music of Paganini played from the loudspeakers on the buildings.
This palace called red palace in English was a art museum located in the street Via Garibaldi. This stylish palace made of red bricks was built in 1675 and was bequeathed to the Municipality of Genoa by the last descendant of the family in 1874. I liked its small balconies with baluster columns – a popular decoration in 17th century on its façade. This palace leaft a deep impression because it was the only red building in the street.
Another palace in the street Via Garibaldi was built between 1563 and 1569 by Nicolosio Lomellino. It was not open for public to visit. There were many renaissance reliefs of indistinguishable patterns and delicate sculptures of bust on its façade. It was hard to describe the color of the wall, looked like a dominant gloomy hue of greyish blue.
There are totally 42 palaces in Genoa that was listed as UNESCO world heritage. I will only list three of them. This palace, called Doria Spinola, became the seat of the Province of Genoa from 1877. There are four balconies on the palace and on each one of them one flag is erected. The eye appealling flag of a red cross on a white field was the national flag of Republic of Genoa.
Genoa is a populated city with many residential houses in the historical center. This is one Roman catholic church squeezed among the houses. When I walked towards the sea side, I passed by it and noticed its unique symmetrical design and two small towers with cross. The insignia on the entrance is also the St. George’s flag, i.e. a red cross on a white field.
The old harbour is an interesting place to visit in Genoa. There is a ship replica of the 17th-century Spanish galleon designed by Naval Architect David Cannell in the harbour. The ship was built in 1985 for Roman Polanski’s film Pirates. It portrays exactly the appearance of Spanish galleon oand reflects the marine power of Genoa at that time.
热那亚旧港是一个有趣的旅游地。港口里有一艘戴维·坎内尔（David Cannell）设计的17世纪西班牙帆船的复制品。他是为1985年罗曼·波兰斯基（Roman Polanski）拍摄的电影《海盗》而建造的。它精准地复刻了当年西班牙帆船的外观，并反映了当时热那亚的海军力量。
When the curtain of night falled down, the harbour left its silouette against the dark evening sky. The city is actually spread out along a narrow section of the Liguria coast and the north of city is blocked by the mountains. Many houses are built along the fluctuating ridge line. The old harbour is a nice place to relax in the summer evening. I sat cosily on the bench in the center of harbour and looked on the streaming crowds under the grand ferris wheel.
Other than the old harbour, Genoa is also famous for its grand squares, old castles, and medieval churches. The Piazza de Ferrari is the main square of Genoa decorated with a magnificent fountain. This square is surrounded by numerous office buildings like headquarters of banks, and insurance companies. At the end of the 19th century, it used to be the main financial centre of Italy.
除了古老的港口，热那亚还以其宏伟的广场，古老的城堡和中世纪时期的教堂而闻名。法拉利广场（Piazza de Ferrari）是热那亚的主要广场，装饰有宏伟的喷泉。这个广场周围有许多办公楼，比如银行总部和保险公司的大楼。在19世纪末，它曾经是意大利主要的金融中心。
The Teatro Carlo Felice is opposite to the Piazza de Ferrari. It is the principal opera house of Genoa. The neoclassical building designed by the local architect Carlo Barabino in 1825 was named for King Carlo Felice. The statue in front of the building is to memorize Giuseppe Garibaldi, one of the founders of modern Italy.
卡洛·费利斯剧院（Teatro Carlo Felice）位于法拉利广场（Piazza de Ferrari）对面。它是热那亚的主要歌剧院。这座剧院是由当地建筑师Carlo Barabino在1825年设计，这座新古典主义建筑以国王Carlo Felice命名。建筑物前的雕像是为了纪念现代意大利的创始人之一朱塞佩·加里波第。
As the capital of medieval religious kindom, cathedral is an indispensable element for Genoa. This church of San Lorenzo dedicated to Saint Lawrence is the seat of the Archbishop of Genoa. It was built between the twelfth century and the fourteenth century and was the major place to conduct religious ritual in Genoa. The bas-reliefs on the entrance depicted the story of Christ with St. Lawrence.
The main facade of the church with three ornate portals is Gothic from the early thirteenth century. Two marble lions of 19 century flanked its entrance. I tapped slightly the head of lion and had a short rest at the steps beside this lion.
When I was in Europe, I liked to stroll about the marketplaces . It could best show the local life. This is the marketplace on Piazza Matteotti in front of the Doge’s palace, with old books, small articles, and paintings for sale. It was the home of the Doges of Genoa, and was now a museum and a centre for cultural events and arts exhibitions. Today it exhibited the artwork of Claude Monet. This building has a neoclassical façade decorated with Doric columns qnd scupltures of god. It is in the north of Piazza de Ferrari.
Throughout the period of the Republic, there were different forms of government. The most notable was the Dogate which means an oligarchy ruled by a group of wealthy merchant families, from whom the doges were selected. The most representative family is the Doria, Spinola, Balbi family. Under their rules, many buildings were built and named after them.
Genoa is an ancient city of long history so nowadays people could discover the remainings of the wall in 10th century in the corners of the city. Porta Soprana is one well-known gate of the ancient walls. It was repaired and restored from dilapidation in 20th century. The two-towered gates are located at th east part of the city and looked over the house of Colombo.
This is the Christopher Columbus House reconstructed in the 18th-century. It was said that Christopher Columbus grew up here between approximately 1455 and 1470. Unfortunately, the house was destroyed in the war of 1684 and rebuilt on the basis of ruins. Despite of this, many touristes would like come and take pictures here.
After one day’s travel, I was extremely exhausted. On my way back to hotel, I have passed through numerous alleys paved with stone slabs. The alleys are named of Carrugi in the local language. Under the slim gleam of lamps, the dark and deep alleys evoked my imagination of the medieval Genoa but the funky graffiti on the peeling and crackling walls brought me relentlessly to the reality.
The next morning, I visited firstly this villa which is very close to my hotel. The Villa del Principe was built between the 1527 and the 1533 in the name of Andrea Doria, the admiral of the fleet of Charles V. He choose this place because it could overlook the gulf of Genoa. Nowadays, it became a museum with many splendid frescoes and tapestries.
第二天早上，我首先参观了这栋离我的酒店很近的别墅。王子别墅（Villa del Principe）建于1527年至1533年之间，以查理五世舰队的海军上将安德里亚·多里亚（Andrea Doria）的命名。他之所以选择建别墅在这个地方，是因为它可以俯瞰热那亚的海湾。如今，它已成为拥有许多精美壁画和挂毯的博物馆。
It has a long gallery displayed of plaster busts. It was a traditional Italien villa with walls painted of yellow-ochre stucco and a courtyard of renaissant style.
The villa includes a beautiful garden decorated with a small fountain as well. Previously as the wish of Andrea Doria, people could see the gulf of Genoa directly from the garden however now due to urban expansion, the view is blocked by the highway and the cruises in the harbour.
To get the panoromic view of Genoa gulf, I will recommend you to visit the castle Albertis. It was built on the top of the hill of Monte Galletto and its gothic brown red colored tower was easily recognized. This castle was built between 1886 and 1892. It was the home of sea captain Enrico Alberto d’Albertis, and was donated to the city of Genoa on his death in 1932. Its design get the inspirations from the palace of Florence.
要欣赏热那亚海湾的全景，我建议参观阿尔贝蒂斯(Albertis)城堡。它建在Monte Galletto山顶上，其哥特式棕红色塔顶很容易辨认。这座城堡建于1886年至1892年之间。它是船长Enrico Alberto d’Albertis的故居，并于1932年去世后捐赠给了热那亚市。其设计灵感来自于佛罗伦萨的宫殿。
On the top of tower of this castle, I could easily see the appearance of this harbour and the gulf. Many huge cruises berthed in the harbour and compared with them, even the tall lighthouse looks so tiny.
Now the castle becomes the Museum of World Cultures, inaugurated in 2004. The museum includes archaeological findings collected by both Enrico and Luigi Maria d’Albertis during their trips in the world. These are the findings belonging to the Maya civilization from Honduras.
现在，这座城堡成为2004年后开始启用的世界文化博物馆。该博物馆包括Enrico和Luigi Maria d’Albertis在世界旅行中收集的考古发现。这个图是在洪都拉斯发现的玛雅文明。
For me, the most attractive viewpoint in Genoa is the Royal Palace. It was located in the street of Balbi. Its construction began in 1618 for the Balbi family. In 1677, it was inherited by Eugenio Durazzo, who transformed it into a Baroque-style building. In 1823, the palace was sold to the Royal House of Savoy. The House of Savoy led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946.
对我来说，热那亚最吸引人的景点一定是皇宫。它位于巴尔比街上，为巴尔比家族始建于1618年。 1677年，尤金尼奥·杜拉佐（Eugenio Durazzo）继承了它，并将其改造成巴洛克风格的建筑。 1823年，该宫殿被出售给萨瓦王室。萨瓦家族于1861年领导了意大利的统一，并在1861年至1946年期间统治了意大利王国。
It has the magificent and splendid mirror gallery decorated of gorgeous crystal chandeliers and ornate frescos. Its design is extremely similar with the gallery in Versaille. The hall was used as a dining room for important occasions, including the visit of Emperor Joseph II of Austria and Napoleon Bonaparte in 1805. The scupltures portrayed the Greek gods like Dionysius and Venus.
This is the throne room. There is one crown on the splendid throne with two metallic scepters on side. It marks the power of the king of the Savoy house. This room preserves the paintings by Luca Giordano. The oil painting on canvas in the right side of the picture is the Combat of Perseus and Phineus.
In the room of Tapestrie, it displayed this huge tapestry called The Impiety of Niobe made of wool, silk, thread of silver and gilded silver. It is related with myth of the impious Niobe who is proud of her divine origins and urged the Thebans not to sacrifice to Leto, who had given birth only to Apollo and Diana, and to worship her instead.
This room is the audience room containing the portrait of Caterina Balbi Durazzo by Van Dyck who was a famous Flemish Baroque artist in 17th century.
I have visited many palaces in Europe. Their overall arrangements are similar. There are always so many rooms with numerous artworks displayed. Before I left, I took the picture in the garden. This one is relatively small compared with the palace of Versaille and 1 hour is enough to visit all the places.
In the afternoon before I left this city, I visited the street Giuseppe Garibaldi again and this palace Doria-Tursi. From 1848 it has also become the city hall of Genoa. This is the largest palace in the street with a two-floor courtyard. It was designed in 1565 by the architects Domenico and Giovanni Ponzello, the pupils of the famous architect Galeazzo Alessi.
下午在离开这座城市之前，我再次参观了朱塞佩·加里波第大街和大街上的这座宫殿多里亚·图尔西宫。从1848年起，它也成为热那亚的市政厅。它是这条街道上最大的宫殿，有一个两层楼的庭院。它是由Domenico和Giovanni Ponzello于1565年设计的，他们是著名建筑师Galeazzo Alessi的学生。
There is one statue on the staircase of the palace to memorize the great Italien politician Giuseppe Mazzini who was born in Genoa. He led the movement of unification of Italy in 19th century. He was a fervent advocate of republicanism and his ideas of social-democratic republicanism influenced on the European republican movements, even motivated the leaders of republican movement in other countries like Jawaharlal Nehru and Sun Yat-sen.
Il Cannone Guarnerius is the violin exhibited at the Palazzo Doria-Tursi. Its owner was the talent musician Niccolò Paganini who was born in Genoa. In the era of 18th and 19th century, many great musicians emerged in Italy. Among of them, Paganini was one of my favorite composers. I could never forget the superb melody of his violin masterpiece Caprice No.24. The other composers like Sergei Rachmaninoff and Franz Liszt had created works like ‘La Campanella’ and ‘Rhapsody variation 18th’ based on Paganini’s work.
Il Cannone Guarnerius是在多里亚-图尔西宫里展出的小提琴。它的所有者是出生于热那亚的才华横溢的音乐家尼克拉·帕格尼尼。在18和19世纪时期，意大利涌现了许多伟大的音乐家。其中，帕格尼尼是我最喜欢的作曲家之一。他的小提琴杰作第24号随想曲的美妙旋律令人永生难忘。谢尔盖·拉赫玛尼诺夫（Sergei Rachmaninoff）和弗朗兹·李斯特（Franz Liszt）等其他作曲家根据帕格尼尼的作品创作了诸如《钟声》和《狂想变奏曲18号》等伟大作品。
This arch of victory is located near the train station Brignole. At 4 o’clock in the afternoon, I took the trains here and left this city but I still immersed in the memory of this trip. This trip increase my knowledge of the history of the city. Genoa used to be the superpower in the sea and even extended its colonies in the Black Sea. However, since the economy and trade routes shifted to the New World and the Ottoman Empire controlled the east Mediterranean sea, Genoa lost gradually its political and economic power. Its ancient glory were buried in the dust of history little by littele but its eternity could still be slowly discovered by touristes in the historical ruins of this city.