Genoa: the one-time superpower of the Mediterranean sea

热那亚:曾经的地中海霸主

Somewhere In Time: Rachmaninoff’s Rhapsody On A Theme Of Paganini, Variation 18

Genoa is one important port in the Liguria region. From 12th century to 15 century, it was the most powerful maritime countries in Europe and controlled the routes of commercial trade in Mediterranean. At that time, it was the most properous city in the world. Nowadays, the city inherited the old tradition and travelling in its historical center and the port, I could still get a glimpse of the remaining glory of the city.


热那亚是利古里亚地区的重要港口之一。从12世纪到15世纪,它是欧洲最强大的海上国家,控制着地中海的商业贸易路线。当时,它是世界上最繁华的城市。如今,这座城市继承了古老的传统。在其老城区和港口旅行时,我仍然可以一瞥这座城市的昔日荣光。

I took the train from Ventimigia, the town in the French Italien border and arrived at this city in the afternoon of July 18, 2020. This was the Genova Piazza Principe railway station located in the west of city.

我从法意边境的小镇Ventimigia坐火车,于2020年7月18日下午到达了这座城市。这是位于热那亚西部的王子广场火车站。

Monumento a Colombo

This is the statue of Columbus near the train station. This great navigator who completed the voyages across the Atlantic Ocean was born in Genoa in 1451. In this statue, his left hand rests on an anchor while his right hand is on the shoulder of an American woman holding a cross in the right hand. At each of the four corners of the base, there are four statues, representing Piety, Science, Constancy and Prudence.


这是火车站附近的哥伦布雕像。这位1451年出生在热那亚的伟大的航海家完成了横跨大西洋的航行。在这尊雕像中,他左手执锚,右手握着十字架落在一位美国妇女的肩膀上。在底座的四个角落中,坐落了四个雕像,分别代表虔诚,科学,恒心和慎略。

Via Balbi

Genoa’s historic centre is in a maze of squares and narrow alleys. These buildings are extremely close to each other so it is very difficult to take the picture of their façade. This is the Via Balbi built by the Genoese aristocracy during the Renaissance. The famous Royal Palace of Genoa is on this street. The most interesting thing in Genoa is to cross numerous narrow passages and explore the ancient palaces one by one. In this picture, the old building is the university of Genoa designed  by the famous architect Bartolomeo Bianco.

热那亚的历史建筑尽在迷宫般的广场和狭窄的小巷中。这些建筑物彼此非常接近,因此很难拍摄它们的正面。这是热那亚贵族在文艺复兴时期建造的巴尔比(Balbi)街。热那亚著名的皇宫就在这条街上。在热那亚最有趣的事情是穿越众多狭窄的小巷,一一探索古老的宫殿。在这张照片中,这座老建筑是热那亚大学,由著名建筑师巴托洛梅奥·比安科(Bartolomeo Bianco)设计。

 Via Giuseppe Garibaldi

Another street that could best represent Genoa is the Via Giuseppe Garibaldi. This street together with the Via Balbi and many palaces in the city was listed as the UNESCO World Heritage Site with the name of ‘ Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli’ in 2006. The renaissance and Baroque palaces built from the late 16th and early 17th centuries marked the glorious history of the Republic of Genoa. When I walked to and fro along this street, I was fascinated by the historical and artistical architectures and the sweet-sounding music of Paganini played from the loudspeakers on the buildings.

热那亚最具代表性的另一条街是朱塞佩·加里波第大街。这条街以及巴尔比大街(Via Balbi)和城市中的众多宫殿在2006年被联合国教科文组织列为世界文化遗产,名称为“热那亚:新街和宫殿系统”。这些文艺复兴风格和巴洛克式宫殿始建于16世纪末和17世纪初,标志着热那亚共和国的辉煌历史。在这条街上来回穿梭时,我乘醉于这些典雅的建筑艺术以及建筑里传出余音绕梁般的帕格尼尼的乐曲。

Palazzo Rosso 

This palace called red palace in English was a art museum located in the street Via Garibaldi. This stylish palace made of red bricks was built in 1675 and was bequeathed to the Municipality of Genoa by the last descendant of the family in 1874. I liked its small balconies with baluster columns – a popular decoration in 17th century on its façade. This palace leaft a deep impression because it was the only red building in the street.

这座宫殿叫红宫,是位于加里波第大街上的一座艺术馆。这座别具一格的宫殿由红砖砌成,建于1675年,在1874年由家族的最后一个后裔遗赠给热那亚市政府。我非常欣赏这些带栏柱的小阳台,这是17世纪时常用的立面装饰。它是街上唯一的红色建筑物,给人留下了深刻的印象。

Palazzo Nicolosio Lomellino

Another palace in the street Via Garibaldi was built between 1563 and 1569 by Nicolosio Lomellino. It was not open for public to visit. There were many renaissance reliefs of indistinguishable patterns and delicate sculptures of bust on its façade. It was hard to describe the color of the wall, looked like a dominant gloomy hue of greyish blue.


Nicolosio Lomellino在1563年至1569年之间建造了这座位于加里波第大街上的宫殿。它不对外开放参观。其立面上有许多文艺复兴时期的浮雕,图案难以分辨,还有许多雕刻精美的半身像。宫殿墙壁的主色调不太确定,看起来是一抹忧郁的灰蓝色。

Palazzo Doria Spinola

There are totally 42 palaces in Genoa that was listed as UNESCO world heritage. I will only list three of them. This palace, called Doria Spinola, became the seat of the Province of Genoa from 1877. There are four balconies on the palace and on each one of them one flag is erected. The eye appealling flag of a red cross on a white field was the national flag of Republic of Genoa.

热那亚共有42座宫殿被联合国教科文组织列为世界遗产,我此处只列出其中三个。这座名为多里亚·斯皮诺拉(Doria Spinola)的宫殿从1877年起成为热那亚省政府的所在地。宫殿上有四个阳台,每个阳台上都竖有一面旗帜。这面显眼的红十字白底的旗就是热那亚共和国的国旗。

Chiesa di San Pietro in Banchi

Genoa is a populated city with many residential houses in the historical center. This is one Roman catholic church squeezed among the houses. When I walked towards the sea side, I passed by it and noticed its unique symmetrical design and two small towers with cross. The insignia on the entrance is also the St. George’s flag, i.e. a red cross on a white field.

热那亚是一个人口稠密的城市,在老城区有许多民居。这是一座挤在房屋中的罗马天主教教堂。当我走向海边路过时,注意到它独特的对称设计和两座立有十字架的小塔。入口处的徽章也是圣乔治的旗帜,即白底红十字旗。

Neptune

The old harbour is an interesting place to visit in Genoa. There is a ship replica of the 17th-century Spanish galleon designed by Naval Architect David Cannell in the harbour. The ship was built in 1985 for Roman Polanski’s film Pirates. It portrays exactly the appearance of Spanish galleon oand reflects the marine power of Genoa at that time.


热那亚旧港是一个有趣的旅游地。港口里有一艘戴维·坎内尔(David Cannell)设计的17世纪西班牙帆船的复制品。他是为1985年罗曼·波兰斯基(Roman Polanski)拍摄的电影《海盗》而建造的。它精准地复刻了当年西班牙帆船的外观,并反映了当时热那亚的海军力量。

The old harbour 
Genova old harbour

When the curtain of night falled down, the harbour left its silouette against the dark evening sky. The city is actually spread out along a narrow section of the Liguria coast and the north of city is blocked by the mountains. Many houses are built along the fluctuating ridge line. The old harbour is a nice place to relax in the summer evening. I sat cosily on the bench in the center of harbour and looked on the streaming crowds under the grand ferris wheel.

夜幕降临之时,港口在深沉的傍晚天际中映衬出黑色的剪影。热那亚这座城市沿着狭窄的利古里亚海岸散布开来,它的北部被山脉所阻挡。许多房屋是沿着起伏的山脊线建造而成的。老港口是夏日夜晚放松的好地方。我此时舒适地坐在港口中心的长凳上,目视着大 摩天轮下熙熙攘攘的人群。

Piazza De Ferrari

Other than the old harbour, Genoa is also famous for its grand squares, old castles, and medieval churches. The Piazza de Ferrari is the main square of Genoa decorated with a magnificent fountain. This square is surrounded by numerous office buildings like headquarters of banks, and insurance companies. At the end of the 19th century, it used to be the main financial centre of Italy.


除了古老的港口,热那亚还以其宏伟的广场,古老的城堡和中世纪时期的教堂而闻名。法拉利广场(Piazza de Ferrari)是热那亚的主要广场,装饰有宏伟的喷泉。这个广场周围有许多办公楼,比如银行总部和保险公司的大楼。在19世纪末,它曾经是意大利主要的金融中心。

Teatro Carlo Felice

The Teatro Carlo Felice is opposite to the Piazza de Ferrari. It is the principal opera house of Genoa. The neoclassical building designed by the local architect Carlo Barabino in 1825 was named for King Carlo Felice. The statue in front of the building is to memorize Giuseppe Garibaldi, one of the founders of modern Italy.


卡洛·费利斯剧院(Teatro Carlo Felice)位于法拉利广场(Piazza de Ferrari)对面。它是热那亚的主要歌剧院。这座剧院是由当地建筑师Carlo Barabino在1825年设计,这座新古典主义建筑以国王Carlo Felice命名。建筑物前的雕像是为了纪念现代意大利的创始人之一朱塞佩·加里波第。

Duomo di Genova, Cattedrale di San Lorenzo

As the capital of medieval religious kindom, cathedral is an indispensable element for Genoa. This church of San Lorenzo dedicated to Saint Lawrence is the seat of the Archbishop of Genoa. It was built between the twelfth century and the fourteenth century and was the major place to conduct religious ritual in Genoa. The bas-reliefs on the entrance depicted the story of Christ with St. Lawrence. 

作为中世纪宗教国家的首都,大教堂自然是热那亚不可或缺的元素。圣洛伦佐教堂是热那亚大主教的所在地。它建于十二世纪至十四世纪之间,是热那亚进行宗教仪式的主要场所。入口上的浅浮雕描绘了基督与圣劳伦斯的故事。

The main facade of the church with three ornate portals is Gothic from the early thirteenth century. Two marble lions of 19 century flanked its entrance. I tapped slightly the head of lion and had a short rest at the steps beside this lion.


带有三个华丽门廊的教堂的主立面是十三世纪初设计的哥特式建筑。入口两侧则是两只19世纪设计的大理石狮子。我此时轻拍了一下狮子的头,在这只狮子旁边的台阶上坐下休息了一会儿。

Palazzo Ducale

When I was in Europe, I liked to stroll about the marketplaces . It could best show the local life. This is the marketplace on Piazza Matteotti in front of the Doge’s palace, with old books, small articles, and paintings for sale. It was the home of the Doges of Genoa, and was now a museum and a centre for cultural events and arts exhibitions. Today it exhibited the artwork of Claude Monet. This building has a neoclassical façade decorated with Doric columns qnd scupltures of god. It is in the north of Piazza de Ferrari.


在欧洲旅游的时候,我挺喜欢在市场上闲逛。它能最好地展示当地生活。这是总督宫前的马特奥蒂广场(Piazza Matteotti)上的集市,里面有旧书,小物品和绘画供出售。它曾是热那亚总督的住宅,现在是一个集博物馆以及文化和艺术展览为一体的活动中心。这一天,它在展览克劳德·莫奈的作品。这座新古典主义建筑的立面装饰有多立克柱和希腊诸神的雕塑。它位于法拉利广场的北部。

Throughout the period of the Republic, there were different forms of government. The most notable was the Dogate which means an oligarchy ruled by a group of wealthy merchant families, from whom the doges were selected. The most representative family is the Doria, Spinola, Balbi family. Under their rules, many buildings were built and named after them.

在整个共和国时期,存在着不同形式的政府。最著名的当属总督制,这是由一群富商家族统治的寡头政府,从中选出总督。最具代表性的家庭是多利亚(Doria),斯皮诺拉(Spinola)和巴尔比(Balbi)家族。在他们的统治下,热那亚建造了许多建筑并以这些家族名字命名。

Porta Soprana 

Genoa is an ancient city of long history so nowadays people could discover the remainings of the wall in 10th century in the corners of the city. Porta Soprana is one well-known gate of the ancient walls. It was repaired and restored from dilapidation in 20th century. The two-towered gates are located at th east part of the city and looked over the house of Colombo.

热那亚是一座历史悠久的古城,因此如今人们可以在城市的角落里发现10世纪城墙的残垣断壁。Soprana门是最古老的城墙之一。破败的城门在20世纪时期得到修复。这座有双塔的城门位于城市的东部,俯瞰着哥伦布的故居。

Casa di Cristoforo Colombo 

This is the Christopher Columbus House reconstructed in the 18th-century. It was said that Christopher Columbus grew up here between approximately 1455 and 1470. Unfortunately, the house was destroyed in the war of 1684 and rebuilt on the basis of ruins. Despite of this, many touristes would like come and take pictures here.

这是18世纪重建的克里斯托弗·哥伦布故居。据说哥伦布在大约1455年到1470年之间在这里长大。不幸的是,这座房子在1684年的战争中被摧毁,并在废墟的基础上重建。尽管如此,许多游客还是很乐意在这里拍照。

After one day’s travel, I was extremely exhausted. On my way back to hotel, I have passed through numerous alleys paved with stone slabs. The alleys are named of Carrugi in the local language. Under the slim gleam of lamps, the dark and deep alleys evoked my imagination of the medieval Genoa but the funky graffiti on the peeling and crackling walls brought me relentlessly to the reality.

经过一天的旅行,我筋疲力尽。在返回酒店的途中,我穿过了许多用石板铺成的小巷。这些小巷在当地语言叫做Carrugi。在微弱的灯光下,黑暗而深沉的小巷唤起了我对中世纪热那亚的无尽想象,但是爆裂起皮的墙壁上刺眼的涂鸦又无情地把我拉回了现实。

Villa Del Principe

The next morning, I visited firstly this villa which is very close to my hotel. The Villa del Principe was built between the 1527 and the 1533 in the name of Andrea Doria, the admiral of the fleet of Charles V. He choose this place because it could overlook the gulf of Genoa. Nowadays, it became a museum with many splendid frescoes and tapestries.

第二天早上,我首先参观了这栋离我的酒店很近的别墅。王子别墅(Villa del Principe)建于1527年至1533年之间,以查理五世舰队的海军上将安德里亚·多里亚(Andrea Doria)的命名。他之所以选择建别墅在这个地方,是因为它可以俯瞰热那亚的海湾。如今,它已成为拥有许多精美壁画和挂毯的博物馆。

It has a long gallery displayed of plaster busts. It was a traditional Italien villa with walls painted of yellow-ochre stucco and a courtyard of renaissant style.

它有一个陈列着石膏半身像的长廊。这是一栋传统的意大利别墅,墙壁上粉刷着黄灰粉,还有一个文艺复兴风格的庭院。

The villa includes a beautiful garden decorated with a small fountain as well. Previously as the wish of Andrea Doria, people could see the gulf of Genoa directly from the garden however now due to urban expansion, the view is blocked by the highway and the cruises in the harbour.

这座别墅包括一座配有小喷泉的美丽花园。以前,按照安德里亚·多里亚(Andrea Doria)的愿望,人们可以直接从花园直接看到热那亚的海湾,但是现在由于城市的扩建,高速公路和游轮挡住了远眺的视野。

Castello d’Albertis

To get the panoromic view of Genoa gulf, I will recommend you to visit the castle Albertis. It was built on the top of the hill of Monte Galletto and its gothic brown red colored tower was easily recognized. This castle was built between 1886 and 1892. It was the home of sea captain Enrico Alberto d’Albertis, and was donated to the city of Genoa on his death in 1932. Its design get the inspirations from the palace of Florence.


要欣赏热那亚海湾的全景,我建议参观阿尔贝蒂斯(Albertis)城堡。它建在Monte Galletto山顶上,其哥特式棕红色塔顶很容易辨认。这座城堡建于1886年至1892年之间。它是船长Enrico Alberto d’Albertis的故居,并于1932年去世后捐赠给了热那亚市。其设计灵感来自于佛罗伦萨的宫殿。

On the top of tower of this castle, I could easily see the appearance of this harbour and the gulf. Many huge cruises berthed in the harbour and compared with them, even the tall lighthouse looks so tiny.

在这座城堡的塔顶上,我可以轻松远眺到这座港口和海湾。许多巨大的游轮停泊在港口,与之相比,即使是高大的灯塔也显得如此渺小。

Now the castle becomes the Museum of World Cultures, inaugurated in 2004. The museum includes archaeological findings collected by both Enrico and Luigi Maria d’Albertis during their trips in the world. These are the findings belonging to the Maya civilization from Honduras.

现在,这座城堡成为2004年后开始启用的世界文化博物馆。该博物馆包括Enrico和Luigi Maria d’Albertis在世界旅行中收集的考古发现。这个图是在洪都拉斯发现的玛雅文明。

Palazzo Reale

For me, the most attractive viewpoint in Genoa is the Royal Palace. It was located in the street of Balbi. Its construction began in 1618 for the Balbi family. In 1677, it was inherited by Eugenio Durazzo, who transformed it into a Baroque-style building. In 1823, the palace was sold to the Royal House of Savoy. The House of Savoy led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946.

对我来说,热那亚最吸引人的景点一定是皇宫。它位于巴尔比街上,为巴尔比家族始建于1618年。 1677年,尤金尼奥·杜拉佐(Eugenio Durazzo)继承了它,并将其改造成巴洛克风格的建筑。 1823年,该宫殿被出售给萨瓦王室。萨瓦家族于1861年领导了意大利的统一,并在1861年至1946年期间统治了意大利王国。

La Galleria

It has the magificent and splendid mirror gallery decorated of gorgeous crystal chandeliers and ornate frescos. Its design is extremely similar with the gallery in Versaille. The hall was used as a dining room for important occasions, including the visit of Emperor Joseph II of Austria and Napoleon Bonaparte in 1805. The scupltures portrayed the Greek gods like Dionysius and Venus.

这座宫殿拥有宏伟壮丽的镜廊,并装饰有豪华的水晶吊灯和华丽的壁画。它的设计与凡尔赛宫的长廊极为相似。这座大厅曾被用作接待重要人物的餐厅,包括接待1805年奥地利皇帝约瑟夫二世和拿破仑·波拿巴的访问。这里的雕塑描绘了狄奥尼修斯和维纳斯等希腊诸神。

Sala del trono

This is the throne room. There is one crown on the splendid throne with two metallic scepters on side. It marks the power of the king of the Savoy house. This room preserves the paintings by Luca Giordano. The oil painting on canvas in the right side of the picture is the Combat of Perseus and Phineus.

这间房间是王座室。炫丽的宝座上放置着一个国王王冠,侧面有两个金属权杖。它象征着萨瓦家族的权力。这里保存着卢卡·佐丹奴(Luca Giordano)的画作。照片右侧的油画就是他的作品珀尔修斯大战菲涅斯。

Sala del Arrazi

In the room of Tapestrie, it displayed this huge tapestry called The Impiety of Niobe made of wool, silk, thread of silver and gilded silver. It is related with myth of the impious Niobe who is proud of her divine origins and urged the Thebans not to sacrifice to Leto, who had given birth only to Apollo and Diana, and to worship her instead.

在挂毯室里展示了一副巨大的挂毯,它的名字叫做不虔诚的Niobe,这个挂毯由羊毛,丝绸,银线和镀金银制成。它和Niobe的神话有关,Niobe为她的神圣血统感到骄傲,并要求底比斯人不要敬拜只生了阿波罗和月神狄阿纳的Leto而转为敬拜她。

Sala delle udienze

This room is the audience room containing the portrait of Caterina Balbi Durazzo by Van Dyck who was a famous Flemish Baroque artist in 17th century.

这个房间是客厅,里面放着范迪克(Van Dyck)的画作卡特琳娜·巴尔比·杜拉佐的肖像,范迪克是17世纪著名的佛兰德巴洛克艺术家。

I have visited many palaces in Europe. Their overall arrangements are similar. There are always so many rooms with numerous artworks displayed. Before I left, I took the picture in the garden. This one is relatively small compared with the palace of Versaille and 1 hour is enough to visit all the places.
我参观过了欧洲的许多宫殿。它们的总体布置皆是如此相近。它们都有这么多房间,并且里面陈列着许多艺术品。在我离开此处之前,我在皇宫花园里拍了一张照。与凡尔赛宫相比,这是一个相对较小的宫殿,只需1小时即可参观所有的地方。

Palazzo Doria-Tursi

In the afternoon before I left this city, I visited the street Giuseppe Garibaldi again and this palace Doria-Tursi. From 1848 it has also become the city hall of Genoa. This is the largest palace in the street with a two-floor courtyard. It was designed in 1565 by the architects Domenico and Giovanni Ponzello, the pupils of the famous architect Galeazzo Alessi.

下午在离开这座城市之前,我再次参观了朱塞佩·加里波第大街和大街上的这座宫殿多里亚·图尔西宫。从1848年起,它也成为热那亚的市政厅。它是这条街道上最大的宫殿,有一个两层楼的庭院。它是由Domenico和Giovanni Ponzello于1565年设计的,他们是著名建筑师Galeazzo Alessi的学生。

There is one statue on the staircase of the palace to memorize the great Italien politician Giuseppe Mazzini who was born in Genoa. He led the movement of unification of Italy in 19th century. He was a fervent advocate of republicanism and his ideas of social-democratic republicanism influenced on the European republican movements, even motivated the leaders of republican movement in other countries like Jawaharlal Nehru and Sun Yat-sen.

这座宫殿的楼梯上立有一尊雕像,以纪念出生在热那亚的伟大政治家朱塞佩·马志尼。他在19世纪领导了意大利的统一运动。他是共和主义的坚定拥护者,他的社会民主共和思想影响了欧洲的共和运动,甚至鼓舞了贾瓦哈拉尔·尼赫鲁和孙中山等其他国家的共和运动领导人。

Il Cannone Guarnerius

Il Cannone Guarnerius is the violin exhibited at the Palazzo Doria-Tursi. Its owner was the talent musician Niccolò Paganini who was born in Genoa. In the era of 18th and 19th century, many great musicians emerged in Italy. Among of them, Paganini was one of my favorite composers. I could never forget the superb melody of his violin masterpiece Caprice No.24. The other composers like Sergei Rachmaninoff and Franz Liszt had created works like ‘La Campanella’ and ‘Rhapsody variation 18th’ based on Paganini’s work.

Il Cannone Guarnerius是在多里亚-图尔西宫里展出的小提琴。它的所有者是出生于热那亚的才华横溢的音乐家尼克拉·帕格尼尼。在18和19世纪时期,意大利涌现了许多伟大的音乐家。其中,帕格尼尼是我最喜欢的作曲家之一。他的小提琴杰作第24号随想曲的美妙旋律令人永生难忘。谢尔盖·拉赫玛尼诺夫(Sergei Rachmaninoff)和弗朗兹·李斯特(Franz Liszt)等其他作曲家根据帕格尼尼的作品创作了诸如《钟声》和《狂想变奏曲18号》等伟大作品。

Arco della Vittoria

This arch of victory is located near the train station Brignole. At 4 o’clock in the afternoon, I took the trains here and left this city but I still immersed in the memory of this trip. This trip increase my knowledge of the history of the city. Genoa used to be the superpower in the sea and even extended its colonies in the Black Sea. However, since the economy and trade routes shifted to the New World and the Ottoman Empire controlled the east Mediterranean sea, Genoa lost gradually its political and economic power. Its ancient glory were buried in the dust of history little by littele but its eternity could still be slowly discovered by touristes in the historical ruins of this city.

这座凯旋门位于Brignole火车站附近。下午4点,我坐火车离开了这座城市,但我仍然沉浸在这次旅行的回忆中。这次旅行增加了我对这座城市历史的了解。热那亚曾经是地中海的超级大国,甚至在黑海都扩展了它的殖民地。但是,由于经济和贸易路线逐渐转移到了新大陆,而奥斯曼帝国又控制了东地中海,热那亚逐渐失去了当年的政治和经济实力。它昔日荣耀如昨日黄花一般一点点地埋在了历史的烟尘中,但游客仍然可以在这里的历史遗迹中慢慢发掘它的永恒。