Naples – the marine city of art and architecture

那不勒斯-荟萃艺术和建筑的海滨城市

Santa Lucia

Naples is the largest city in the south of Italy. It has history of 2,800 years with a wealth of historical buildings and monuments of Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque styles. Its historic centre was listed as world heritage site in 1995. I was familiar with this city because Diego Maradona had played in the club of S.S.C Napoli and brought great glory to this city. I was excited to visit here on 19th July 2020 by the express train from La Spezia.

那不勒斯是意大利南部最大的城市。它拥有2800年的历史,以及丰富的中世纪,文艺复兴时期和巴洛克风格的历史建筑和古迹。它的老城区在1995年被列为世界文化遗产。我因为迭戈·马拉多纳曾在那不勒斯俱乐部效力,并为这座城市带来无上荣耀而对这座城市很熟悉。我特别激动能够在2020年7月19日从拉斯佩齐亚乘火车来这里旅游。

Gulf Naples

When I arrived, I strolled along the seaside of the gulf Naples with a sense of novelty. The harbour of Naples is very close to the train station Napoli P. Garibaldi so I just took 10 minutes to walk from the station to here. Naples is one of the most important ports in Meditteranean that harbours many sailing boats and large ships.

当我到达后,怀揣着新鲜感沿着那不勒斯海湾边漫步。那不勒斯的港口非常靠近加里波第火车站(Napoli P. Garibaldi),所以我只花了10分钟就从火车站步行到这里。那不勒斯是地中海中最重要的港口之一,停泊着许多帆船和大型船只。

Castel Nuovo

There are some castles built near the sea side so I could see them faraway when I walked along the sea. This is a medieval castle located in front of the city hall. Its name in English is New Castle. It was built in 1279 and was a royal seat for kings of Naples, Aragon and Spain until 1815. It was defended by five large cylindrical towers.

在那不勒斯海边建有很多城堡,当我沿着海边散步时就可以将它们尽收眼底。这是位于市政厅前的中世纪城堡。它的名字直译为新堡。它建于1279年,在1815年之前是那不勒斯王国,阿拉贡王国和西班牙王国的皇家住所。它由五座庞大的圆塔构建防御。

I extremely like its spectacular arch. The white marble triumphal arch, built in 1470, commemorated Alfonso of Aragon’s entry to Naples in 1443. The kingdom of Naples was annexed to the Kingdom of Spain by Ferdinand II of Aragon so the city was under the control of Spanish in 15 century. The arch has two levels with totally 35 meters tall. The first level sculptures depict a triumphal quadriga of Alfonso’s parade. The second level has four niches with statues depicting the virtues of Alfonso. 

我特别喜欢它壮观的拱门。这座白色的大理石凯旋门建于1470年,为纪念阿拉贡王国的阿方索国王于1443年驾临那不勒斯。那不勒斯王国被阿拉贡的费迪南德二世吞并为西班牙王国的一部分,因此该市在15世纪是由西班牙统治。这个拱门共有两层,总高35米。第一层的雕塑描绘了阿方索凯旋的盛大场面。第二层有四个壁龛里面藏有赞颂阿方索美德的雕像。

Galleria Umberto I

The architecture of Naples combines the elements of modern and classic. The Galleria Umberto I was one example of employing modern elements. This Galleria built between 1887–1891 was named for Umberto I, the King of Italy at that time. It was a shoping gallery designed by Emanuele Rocco. Its entrance is flanked by the Corinthian columns.
那不勒斯的建筑融合了现代与古典的元素。翁贝托一世画廊是运用现代元素的典范。这座建于1887年至1891年之间的圆顶画廊以当时的意大利国王翁贝托一世命名。这是一个由Emanuele Rocco设计的购物长廊。它的入口两侧是科林斯式柱廊。

The inside of the gallery is similar to the gallery of Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan. It is a high and spacious cross-shaped structure. The top is a glass dome supported by 16 metal ribs. Its shiny mosaic floor could even reflect the profile of the dome. It was a early morning so the shops in the gallery had not yet been opened.

长廊的内部类似于米兰的维托里奥·埃曼努埃尔二世长廊。它是高而宽敞的十字形结构。顶部是由16个金属肋支撑的玻璃圆顶。它闪亮的马赛克地板甚至可以映射处出圆顶的轮廓。现在依然是清晨,长廊内部的商店尚未营业。

Opposite the gallery, it was the famous San Carlo theater. When I arrived, the whole building was under reparation so I could not know how this Neoclassical building  actually looked like. The theatre was opened in 1737 with the exquisite decoration inside. It was one of the most luxurious theatres in the world with around 3000 seats.

长廊对面是著名的圣卡洛剧院。我来参观的时候整座建筑都在维修中,所以也无法知晓这座新古典主义建筑的庐山真面目。该剧院于1737年开业,内部装潢精美。它是世界上最豪华的剧院之一,拥有约3000个座位。

Piazza del Plebiscito

Piazza del Plebiscito is a large public square beside the Teatro di San Carlo. The squre is named after the 1860’s plebiscite that brought Naples into the unified Kingdom of Italy. It was surrounded by the the Royal Palace, the Prefecture Palace and the church of San Francesco di Paola. The statue in the square is the Charles VII of Naples who ruled Naples as Charles of Bourbon (1734–1759) and Sicily. 

公投广场是圣卡洛剧院旁的大型公共广场。此广场因1860年的全民投票将那不勒斯纳入了统一的意大利王国中而由此命名。它被那不勒斯皇宫,议会宫和圣弗朗西斯科保拉教堂包围。广场上的雕像是那不勒斯的查理七世,也是波旁王朝的查理,他在1734到1759之间统治那不勒斯和西西里岛。

San Francesco di Paola

The San Francesco di Paola church in the square is a neoclassical building with a special design of three cupola which is different with other churchs. Its façade is fronted by a portico of six columns and two Ionic pillars. This portico was designed by Leopoldo Laperuta and looked like the Pantheon in Rome.

广场上的圣弗朗西斯科保拉教堂是一栋新古典主义建筑,带有三个圆顶。这种的特殊设计与其他教堂不同。它的正面是有六列立柱和两个爱奥尼亚式圆柱的门廊。这个门廊是由Leopoldo Laperuta设计的,看起来神似罗马的万神殿。

Palazzo Reale di Napoli

Opposite the San Francesco di Paola church, it is the Royal Palace of Naples. When Charles III of Spain arrived Naples, the palace became the royal residence of the Bourbons. Under the rule of Bourbon Kings, it was decorated lavishly during the period of Kingdom of Naples (1735–1816) and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1816-1861). Its façade facing the Piazza del Plebiscito displays a series of statues of prominent rulers of Naples in chronological order. The famous rulers include Frederick II of Holy Roman Emperor, Charles III of Spain, Murat, and Vittorio Emanuele II.

在圣弗朗西斯科保拉教堂对面就是那不勒斯皇宫。当西班牙的查理三世到达那不勒斯时,该宫殿成为波旁王朝的王室住所。在波旁国王统治下的那不勒斯王国(1735–1816)和两西西里王国(1816-1861)时期对其进行了华丽的装潢。面向公投广场的皇宫正面的壁龛里按时间顺序陈列着那不勒斯历史上著名统治者的雕像。其中包括神圣罗马帝国皇帝腓特烈二世,西班牙的查理三世,法国的缪拉元帅以及维托里奥·埃曼努埃尔二世。

This is the entrance hall of the palace with the marble staircase leading to the rooms at the second floor. The whole palace is a square and there is a open courtyard in the middle. All the rooms are interconnected and could be visited by following the sequence. I will just introduce several rooms here.

这是宫殿的入口大厅,大理石楼梯通向二楼的房间。整个宫殿是一个正方形,中间有一个开放式庭院。所有房间都是相互连接的,可以按照顺序进行参观。我将在这里着重介绍几个房间。

Flemish hall

In the Flemish hall, the ceiling is decorated with the coats of arm from Neapolitan provinces. The hall exhibits a collection of Dutch portraits from the 17th century. Like the palace of Verseille, the room is also equipped with crystal chandeliers and long red window curtains.

在佛兰芒大厅中,天花板装饰着那不勒斯王国的纹章。大厅里展示了17世纪的一些荷兰人的肖像画。像凡尔赛宫装饰一样,房间里还装饰着水晶烛灯和长长的红色帷幕。

Joachim Murat’s Office

This is the office of Joachim Murat’s office. Murat was a Marshal of the Empire during the reign of Napoleon. He was also the king of Naples from 1808 to 1815. The ceiling of the room could be dated to 1840, decorated with tempera on plaster. This hall hosts some remarkable pieces of Murat period furniture, including a desk, commode, and bonheur du jour (a type of writing desk). These furnitures are crafted by Adam Weisweiler and given to Carolina Bonaparte, i.e Murat’s wife. There are two porcelain vases decorated with fleur-de-lis and delicate paintings in the room.

这是缪拉的办公室。在拿破仑统治期间,缪拉是帝国元帅之一,在1808年到1815年之间,他同时担当那不勒斯的国王。房间的天花板装饰可以追溯到1840年,用石膏蛋彩画装饰。这个大厅里摆放着那个时期的家具,包括桌子,衣柜和写字台。这些家具由亚当·韦斯韦勒(Adam Weisweiler)手工制作,并赠送给了缪拉的妻子卡罗琳波拿巴。房间里还有两个装饰着鸢尾花和精致绘画的瓷花瓶。

The queen’s room

This is the queen’s room. Its ceiling features rare Rococo white and gilt stucco decorations made during the reign of Charles of Bourbon. The furniture was manufactured in Naples in 1840. The room is decorated with Neapolitan School paintings of 17th and 18th century.

这间是皇后的房间。它的天花板采用了波旁查理王朝统治期间制作的罕见的洛可可式白色镀金粉装饰。家具于1840年在那不勒斯制造。房间里装饰着17和18世纪那不勒斯学院画。

The royal chapel

The royal chapel was built by Francesco Antonio Picchiatti. It was used for the Palace’s religious ceremony. The altar in semi-precious stone and gilt copper is the work of Neopolitan baroque artiste Dioniso Lazzari in 1674. In the european palaces, chapel is a very important building because the power and rights of kings are endowed by the pope.

这座皇家教堂由弗朗切斯科·安东尼奥·皮基亚蒂(Francesco Antonio Picchiatti)建造。它被用于宫殿的各种宗教仪式。用半石和镀金铜制成的祭坛是那不勒斯巴洛克艺术家狄奥尼索·拉扎里(Dioniso Lazzari)1674年的作品。在欧洲的宫殿中,教堂是非常重要的建筑元素,因为教皇赋予了国王一切权利。

I spent around 1 hour in the royal palace. There is a Garden called Molosiglio behind the palace with the bronze statue of Augusto. From here I could survey the beautiful landscape of the gulf of Naples.

我在皇宫里待了大约1个小时。皇宫后面有一个叫Molosiglio的花园,里面有这个奥古斯都大帝的青铜雕像。从这里我可以饱览那不勒斯湾的旖旎风光。

It was a sunny day. I was luxuriating in sunshine along the coastline. The sea lapping against the rocks shimmered in the sunlight and left ripples on the beach. The soaring mountain on the opposite side of the coast is the famous Mount Vesuvius and it seemed to wave to me endlessly.

今天是万里晴空。我沉醉于海岸边的温暖阳光普照之下。拍打在岩石上的波涛,在阳光下闪烁发光,并在海滩上留下阵阵涟漪。海岸的另一侧高耸的山脉是著名的维苏威火山,它此时似乎在向我频频招手。

Castel dell’Ovo

I walked fast along the coastline until this huge castle appeared in my eyes. The Egg Castle is a seaside castle in the Gulf of Naples. The castle’s name comes from an ancient legend. The Roman poet Virgil put a magical egg into the foundations to support the fortifications. If this egg is broken, the castle would have been destroyed and a series of diaster would have followed. It is the oldest castle in Naples equipped by many cannons on the top.

我沿着海岸线一直疾走,直到这座巨大的城堡映入眼帘。蛋堡是那不勒斯的滨海城堡。这座城堡的名字来自一个古老的传说。罗马诗人维吉尔在城堡地基上放了一块魔蛋来支撑防御工事。如果这个鸡蛋被打破,那么城堡就将被摧毁,一系列灾难也将随之而来。它是那不勒斯最最古老的城堡,顶部装备有许多大炮。

There is only one road connecting the castle. I took this picture on this road. The castle is located at the island of Megaride. The castle faces Mergellina across the sea which is another harbour of the city.

此处只有一条道路连接城堡。我就在这条路上拍摄了这张照片。该城堡位于梅加里德岛上。这座城堡隔着海直面这座城市的另一个港口Mergellina。

Palazzo San Giacomo

Afterwards, I left the seaside and started my journey in the center area of the city. The Palazzo San Giacomo, known as the city hall, is located at the Piazza del Municipio. It is a Neoclassical style palace, completed in 1825. There is a beautiful fountain in front of its entrance. The fountain of Neptune was built in 17th century with collaboration of Michelangelo Naccherino and Pietro Bernini. It was originally located at the arsenal in the port and deplaced to the current location in 2015.

我旋即离开海边,开始了在老城区的旅程。这座位于市政广场的圣贾科莫宫就是那不勒斯市政府。它是一座新古典主义风格的宫殿,建于1825年。入口前有一个美丽的喷泉。这座海神喷泉始建于17世纪,是由米开朗基罗和贝尼尼合作设计。它最初位于港口的火药库,后于2015年移至当前位置。

Piazza dei Martiri 

Another square that I want to highlight is the Martyrs’ Square. There is a monument in the center of the square. It is one single huge column built in the period of Bourbon rule with a bronze statue atop, depicting the Virtue of the Martyrs. The four lions at the corners of the base represent the patriots who died during the anti-Bourbon revolutions. The lion dying represents the martyr defending the short lived Parthenopean Republic in 1799. The lion pierced by a sword represents the martyrs during Carbonari revolution of 1820. The lion with 1848 statutes under paw represents the martyrs during the revolution of 1848. The lion striding on foot represents the successful Garibaldini Revolt of 1860. In 1861, Italy was finally united so this monument was to memorize the efforts and blood of martyrs during the revolutions.

我要着重介绍的另一个广场是烈士广场。广场中央有一座纪念碑。它是波旁王朝统治时期建造的一根柱子,上面刻有青铜雕像,赞颂了革命的烈士。纪念碑基座四角的四只狮子代表着在反抗波旁王朝革命中丧生的爱国者。垂死的狮子代表1799年捍卫短暂的Parthenopean共和国的烈士。被剑刺穿的狮子代表在1820年卡波纳里革命期间丧生的烈士。爪子下紧握1848年法规的狮子代表着1848年革命期间的烈士。大步流血的狮子则代表了1860年成功的加里波第起义。1861年,意大利终于统一,因此这座纪念碑是为了纪念烈士们在革命中的努力和鲜血。

Castel Capuano

In the afternoon, I visited the historical center from the Via dei Tribunal. It was a long but very norrow east-west street. Most of the churches in Naples were built in the area. The east end of the street was the Castel Capuano. It was built in the 12th century by William I, the son of Roger II of Sicily, the first monarch of the Kingdom of Naples. It was expanded by Frederick II of Hohenstaufen and became one of his royal palaces. From the 16th century, it became the hall of justice.

下午,我从Tribunali大街(Via dei Tribunali)参观了那不勒斯的老城区,那是一条漫长却非常狭窄的东西走向街道。那不勒斯的大多数教堂都建在该地区。街道的东端是卡斯帕诺城堡(Castel Capuano)。它由那不勒斯王国的第一任君主西西里岛的罗杰二世的儿子威廉一世在12世纪建造。并由霍亨斯陶芬王朝的腓特烈二世(Frederick II)扩建,成为他的皇宫之一。从16世纪开始,它后来成为了司法宫。


Obelisco di San Gennaro

The unique view points in Naples are the spires or obelisks i.e the monumental columns. The Spire of San Gennaro completed in 1650 was designed by Cosimo Fanzago, perhaps the greatest architect of the Neapolitan Baroque. The spire was built to celebrate the deliverance of the city from the great earthquake of 1631. It was located at the Via dei Tribunali.

那不勒斯的独特景点是众多尖顶塔或方尖纪念碑。 这座San Gennaro尖塔于1650年完工,由那不勒斯最伟大的巴洛克风格建筑师Cosimo Fanzago设计。这座塔是为了纪念1631年大地震后这座城市获得救赎而建的。它位于Tribunali大街上。

Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta

The Spire of San Gennaro was behind the Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary. This Roman Catholic cathedral is the main church of Naples and the seat of the Archbishop of Naples. It is also named San Gennaro, in honour of Saint Januarius, the city’s patron saint. The construction of the church started from the King Charles I of Anjou, in the 13 century.

San Gennaro尖塔就位于圣母升天大教堂的后面。这座罗马天主教大教堂是那不勒斯的主教堂,也是那不勒斯大主教的所在地。它也命名为San Gennaro,以纪念该市的守护神Saint Januarius。教堂的建造始于13世纪的安茹国王查理一世。

The church has the magificant frescos drawn by Domenichino and Giovanni Lanfranco. Its dome with gorgeous colors and decorations is splendid. The church houses a vial of the blood of Saint Januarius, which is brought out three times a year. A ceremony of liquefying the blood would be hold. If the blood fails to liquefy, then it is said that disaster will befall Naples.

教堂装饰有多梅尼奇诺(Domenichino)和乔瓦尼·兰弗兰科(Giovanni Lanfranco)绘制的宏伟壁画。它的圆顶色彩绚丽,装饰精美。教堂里有一小瓶保护神Saint Januarius的血,每年要取出三次,举行血液升华的仪式。如果血液不能成功液化,那么据说那不勒斯将遭受灾难。

Basilica di San Paolo Maggiore

There are more than 100 churches in Naples so visitors will only visit few of them based on personal interests. This church San Paolo Maggiore is a basilica church, also the burial place of Gaetano Thiene, the founder of the Order of Clerics Regular (or Theatines). This baroque style church has two Corinthian columns and could be accessible by a staircase. This kind of design makes it different with other churches.

那不勒斯有100多座教堂,因此游客可根据个人兴趣参观其中的几座。这是圣保罗马焦雷教堂,也是末位神职界修会的创始人加埃塔诺·蒂耶内(Gaetano Thiene)的墓地。这座巴洛克风格的教堂有两个科林斯式圆柱,并且需要通过楼梯进入。这是它与其他教堂略有不同的地方。

Obelisco di San Domenico

This area is full of historical buildings and monuments. This is another spire called Spire of San Domenico located in the square of San Domenico Maggiore. The spire was built after the plague of 1656 and was again designed by Fanzago. It was completed in 1737.

这片区域到处都是历史建筑和古迹。这是位于圣多梅尼科·马焦雷广场上的另一个尖顶,称为圣多梅尼科尖顶。该尖塔建于1656年的瘟疫之后,也是由Fanzago设计。它于1737年完工。

Gesù Nuovo

In the western side of the historic center, the church Gesù Nuovo could be found. It was originally a palace built in 1470 for Roberto Sanseverino, the Prince of Salerno and was sold in the 1580s for 45,000 ducats to construct a church from 1584 to 1601. That is why it has an unsual façade of the palace with rustic ashlar diamond projections.

在老城区的西侧,可以看到这座新耶稣教堂。它最初是在1470年为萨莲诺王子罗伯托·桑塞韦里诺(Roberto Sanseverino)建造的宫殿,并在1580年以45,000 杜卡特的价格出售,以建造这座教堂。这就是为什么它有着只有宫殿才会有的质朴的琢石凸起墙面。

The vault frescos representing Jesus befalling were completed by Belisario Corenzio and Paolo de Matteis. On the four pillars supporting the dome are frescos of the four Evangelists. There are three bronze bas-reliefs on a black marble base. Above the altar, there are eight busts of saints who glorified the Eucharist. 

代表耶稣降临的穹顶壁画由Belisario Corenzio和Paolo de Matteis完成。支撑圆顶的四个大柱上有四位福音传教士的壁画。黑色大理石底座上有三个青铜浅浮雕。在祭坛上方,有八位圣人半身像成列以赞美圣体圣事。


Obelisco dell’Immacolata

Outside the church, there is another spire called spire of the Immaculate Virgin. It was built to invoke the Virgin Mary’s protection from the plague. Its construction began in the 17th century and was completed in 1750, also a prototype of Neapolitan Baroque art. 

在这座教堂外,还有另一个称为Immaculate Virgin的尖顶。它是为了纪念圣母玛利亚保护那不勒斯免受瘟疫的侵袭而设立。它始建于17世纪,直到1750年才完成,也是那不勒斯巴洛克艺术的代表作品。

Besides art and architecture, Naples is also one paradise of delicious food. It is the origin of the pizza but here I will introduce one untraditional pizza. It is called pizza fritta sold in the store called Sorbillo. Unlike classic pizza cooked by a wood burning stove, it is just made by a frying pan but the dough is same as the classic pizza. It is filled with cicoli, Neapolitan salami with ricotta or mozzarella and ham. It is nice and cheap, costs only 3.5 euros. The taste is similar with one type of Chinese fried cake.

除了艺术和建筑,那不勒斯也是美食的天堂。这里是披萨的发源地,但我会将介绍一种非传统的披萨。这是在名为Sorbillo的商店中出售的油炸披萨饼。和用柴火烤制的经典比萨不同,它只需用平底煎锅制作,但使用的面团与经典比萨相同。它里面的馅料是那不勒斯香肠,意大利乳清干酪或火腿。它既好吃又便宜,仅售3.5欧元。味道和中国的炸油饼很相似。

Toledo metro station

No matter how good the place is, there will be the final moment to say goodbye. The last memorable place in Naples is the Toledo metro station when I prepared for the departure. This station called Toledo, the same name of one Spanish city, has the perfect illumination effect that makes it look like a starry sky. The color of the sky will change periodically from blue to purple to green. The escalator seems to be like the steps leading the people to the heaven. I have never seen such an artistic metro station like this. It will forever leave a deep impression in my heart.

不管再好的地方,都会有分别的时刻。当我准备出发时,那不勒斯最后一个值得留念的地方就是托莱多地铁站。这个叫托莱多的车站,与一个西班牙城市同名,具有完美的灯光效果,使其看起来像繁星点点的天空。天空的颜色会定期从蓝色变为紫色到绿色。地铁的自动扶梯似乎是将人们带向天堂的阶梯。我从未见过像这样的充满艺术气息的地铁站。这将永远在我的心中留下不可磨灭的印象。

Discover the coast of Cinq Terre

探索五渔村

G. Puccini – O Mio Babbino Caro – Piano Solo by Matthias Dobler

In the remote coast of Mediterranean, there is such an idyllic and peaceful land called Cinque Terre. It means Five Lands in Italien and they are five characteristic villages hugging the cliffs along a short stretch of the Ligurian coast in the Linguria area. The five villages are Monterosso al Mare, Vernazza, Corniglia, Manarola, and Riomaggiore. The tortuous coastline, the villages on different levels of hillside, and the magnificent view of the surrounding hillsides constitues the Cinque Terre National Park which was listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997.

在遥远的地中海海岸有这样一片宁静而绝美的世外桃源。五渔村(Cinque Terre)在意大利语的意思是的五片土地,它们是利古利亚地区绵延在一段海岸线上的悬崖峭壁的五座村庄。这五个村庄分别是蒙特勒索,维尔那扎,科尔尼亚,马纳若拉和雷奥马乔里。绵长曲折的海岸线,错落有致的村庄和周围壮丽的山景构成了五渔村国家公园,该公园于1997年被联合国教科文组织列为世界文化遗产。

I took the intercity train from Genova and arrived at this wonderland in the sunny and scorching afternoon of July 18, 2020. This was the small train station of Manarola hiding between two tunnels in the ridges. From the platform the touristes could overlook the azure water of the sea. All the 5 villages are connected by the train line so it is quite convenient to visit all of them. Due to time limit, I only visited the two villages, Manarola and Riomaggiore this time.

鄙人从热那亚乘坐城际列车,于2020年7月18日的炎炎晌午到达了这片神奇土地。马纳若拉的小火车站藏匿于山脊里的两条隧道之间。在月台上游客便可俯视这片碧蓝的海水。五鱼村所有5个村庄均由铁路线连接,因此前往所有村庄都非常方便。由于时间限制,这次我只游览了马纳若拉和雷奥马乔里这两个村庄。

Manarola

The village of Manarola was accessible from the train station through an underground tunnel in just 5 minutes. The houses of the village were painted with different colors and were built on the precipitous cliff dominating the Mediterranean Sea since the start of the village. The arrangment of houses had highlighed the unique style of Cinq terre.

从火车站通过地下隧道仅需5分钟即可到达马纳若拉村。村庄里的屋壁被涂上了五颜六色不同的颜色。自村庄建立之际,这些历史悠久的建筑就屹立在悬崖峭壁上俯瞰地中海。这样的布局风格彰显出五鱼村独特的魅力。

Beyond the coast, there was a small road leading to the restaurant at the hill top. On the halfway of the road, touristes could take the panaromic picture of Manarola at this place. It was a perfect scenic viewpoint but crowded. But everyone is patient enough to take this iconic picture of the village.

彼岸有一条通往山顶餐厅的小路。途中游客可以在这个观景点拍摄马纳若拉的全景照片。这是一个完美的风景拍摄点,游客接踵而至,将自己的身影与这片风景永久留存。

Walking slowly downwards from the steps, it was the dock of the village, harbouring many small boats. On the hill top, there was a restaurant called Nessun Dorma. It was a great place to order one drink like limoncello spritz cocktail and enjoy the beautiful view of Manarola.

Cinq Terre is famous for the luxuriant verdant lemon trees. The Nobel laureate Eugenio Montale has described it with the beautiful words like this,

The little path that winds down
along the slope plunges through cane-tufts
and opens suddenly into the orchard
among the moss-green trunks
of the lemon trees.

Except lemon drinks, Manarola also has the famous local wine, called Sciacchetrà which should be tasted by touristes.

缓步走下岸边台阶,此处便是村庄的码头,停泊了许多小船。在远处山顶上,有一家名为Nessun Dorma的餐厅。这里是点一杯柠檬鸡尾酒并欣赏马纳若拉美景的好地方。 五渔村以茂盛翠绿的柠檬树而闻名。诺贝尔奖获得者埃乌杰尼奥·蒙塔莱用唯美的文字如此描述,

蜿蜒的小路

沿着斜坡深入甘蔗丛

在苔绿色的柠檬树干之间

那个果园突然乍现

除柠檬饮料外,马纳若拉还有当地著名的葡萄酒,称为Sciacchetrà,游客应当品尝一下。

The glamour of Cinq Terre also includes its wavy sea shore. Its upswelling tide pounds on the shore and the white waves flow over and hit on rocks like heaps of snow. At the dock of Manarola, there is one divided safety area for people to swim and experience the wildness of sea. I even saw some brave teenagers diving from the rock top into water; really crazy!

五渔村的魅力少不了它的波涛汹涌的海岸。海岸的岩石上,惊涛拍岸卷起千堆雪。在马纳若拉的码头,有一个划出的安全区供人们涉水挑战大海并体验大海的狂野。这里甚至可以看到一些勇敢的少年从岩石顶跳入水中,令人心惊肉跳!

I had also spent 1 hour to walk in the village. Manarola may be the oldest of the towns in the Cinque Terre so there are many historical buildings here. Since their houses were built along the mountain, most of the time, I was padding along the tortuous mountain trail. Their houses had the decorations of warm color like red pink, and yellow.

我还花了1个小时在村子里散步。马纳若拉可能是五渔村最古老的城镇,这里有许多古老建筑。由于房屋都是依山建造,所以大部分时间我都沿着曲折的山路徐徐前行。他们的房屋装饰的是暖色调,如红色,粉红色和黄色。

This is one stone arch bridge in the village leading to one local residence. This bridge straddling one babbling brook had a long history. On the mountain top, there is a old church called San Lorenzo which could be traced to 1338.

这是村里的一座石拱桥,通向一个当地居民住所。这座建在潺潺小溪上的桥颇有历史了。在山顶上,有一座古老的教堂叫San Lorenzo,其历史可以追溯到1338年。

Via dell’Amore

There are many paths connecting the 5 villages of Cinq Terre. This is one famous walking trail between Manarola and Riomaggiore called Via dell’Amore, “Love’s Trail”. Many lovers had put locks with their names on the railings of the trail to memorize their precious loves. I firstly planned to walk from Manarola to Riomaggiore through the trail. Unfortunately, due to coronovirus, this trail was locked so I had to take train instead. At the train station, I really felt pity because I had to leave this beautiful place and I never knew what is my next time to come here.

许多小径连接五渔村的5个村庄。这是一条在马纳若拉和雷奥马乔里之间的著名步行小径Via dell’Amore,称为“ 爱情小径”。许多恋人将刻有他们名字的锁锁在小径的栏杆上,以纪念他们珍贵的爱情。我原本计划从马纳若拉经由此路步行到雷奥马乔里。不幸的是,由于新冠病毒,这条路被封锁了,所以我不得不另辟蹊径。在火车站不由得感叹无限江山别时容易见时难。

Riomaggiore

When I arrived at Riomaggiore, it was nearly at dusk. There are many restaurants and bars in the village. I could smell the intoxicating scent of wine from the valley when I walked along the street. The colorful houses here are similar with the ones in Manarola. I did not visit many places here. I just sat on the bench at sea side and gazed at the village and its sea shore and enjoy this peaceful moment.

抵达里奥马焦雷时,已是近黄昏。村子内众多餐馆和酒吧粼次节比。所到之处,小巷中溢出了令人陶醉的酒香。这里色彩缤纷的房屋与Manarola的房屋及其相似。我在这里并未信步闲游。唯有静静坐在海边的长椅上,凝望着村庄及其海岸,享受这岁月静好。

At 8:45 pm, the sun started to fall down slowly. The setting sun illuminated totally the sea level and tinged the water and sky with gold. The stylish houses along the mountains were silhouetted against the sun. At this moment, all the touristes pressed the button of their camera to grasp this incredible beautiful view. The distant horizon line waded little by little under the afterglow of the setting sun, leaving behind the last faint golden color. The breeze hits the flutuating waves and scatters the glow into numerous stars.

戌时三刻,太阳开始缓缓降落。落日照亮了整个海平面,并将水天一线染成淡淡的金色。沿山而建的房屋映衬在余晖下。此刻,所有游客都按下了相机的按钮,抓拍这绝世美景。遥远的地平线在落日的余辉的照耀下随着时间的流逝在海面上一点点消散,留下最后一抹暗淡的金色。微微风触浪,散做满天星。

When the night resumed her reign, the sea shore of Cinq Terre falled into silence again. The skyline became a total darkness and the crowd gradually dissipated. The only remaining was the twinkle of distant lights of the village and the whisper of visitors who was not willing to miss every moment of this beautiful place.

夜幕缓缓降临,五渔村的海边再次陷入沉寂。天际线变得一片漆黑,喧闹的人群逐渐散去。唯一弥留的是远处村庄里的灯火阑珊,以及依依不舍的游客的悄声絮语。

Pompeii – the city destroyed by volcano

庞贝 – 火山下毁灭的城市

Una furtiva Lagrima – cello y Piano

Pompeii is an ancient city of Roman empire located in the south of Napoli. It was buried under volcanic ash of thickness up to 4 to 6 m in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. The city was well preserved under the ash for 2000 years. After the excavation, it displayed the unique view of Roman life and Roman buildings. It becomes a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997. For the fans of Roman Empire, this will be a place of must-see.

庞贝城是位于那不勒斯南部的罗马帝国古城。在公元79年维苏威火山爆发时,它被埋在厚度达4至6米的火山灰下。这座城市在火山灰下完好保存了2000年。当它重见天日后,它展现了罗马时代的生活和罗马建筑的独特风貌。自1997年以来,它成为了联合国教科文组织的世界文化遗产。对于罗马帝国的粉丝来说,这是一个不可错过的地方。

I took the circumvesuviana train to the station Pompei Scavi-Villa dei Misteri and visited this place on July 19th 2020. This is entrance of the pompeii archaeological park. From here to the insides of the city, the aspects of the city are gradually shown to my eyes.


我乘坐circumvesuviana火车到Pompei Scavi-Villa dei Misteri车站,在2020年7月19日参观了这个地方。这是庞贝考古公园的入口。从这里进入城市深处,庞贝的风貌在我眼里逐渐展现出来。

I walked along the streets of the city under the scorching sunlight. The wide streets are made of uneven stone blocks. There are many similar streets in the city arranged horizontally and vertically. The city is planned like a chess board. The brick made houses along the streets were the residential place for local people when they were buried under the volcanico ash. When I idled along this road, I was really amazed at the historical vicissitude.


我在烈日下沿着街道漫步。宽阔的街道由高低不平的石头砌成。这里的街道基本是水平和垂直排列的,该市的规划就像棋盘一样。沿街的砖砌房屋是当地居民被埋在火山灰下时的住所。当我沿着这条路闲逛时,对历史的沧桑感到惊讶。

Via dell’Abbondanza

The Via dell’Abbondanza was the main street of ancient Pompeii, which was in the direction east/west from the Forum to the Porta Sarno. The street used to be full of hustle and bustle with many shops, snack-bars and restaurants but now the only things remaining are the cold stones and bricks that recorded the city’s history.

Abbondanza大街是庞贝古城的主要街道,从罗马广场到Sarno门东西而行。这条街上曾经到处都是熙熙攘攘的商店,小吃店和餐馆,但现在剩下的唯一遗迹就是记录城市历史的冰冷的砖石瓦砾。

There are many houses in the city and most of them are forbidden to visit for the reason of protection. This is one of the common residential houses that allow visitors to enter. I could enter and know more about the structure of their houses and how the room is arranged. The wall faces had showed signs of decay due to the infestation and erosions of ages.

城市里有很多房子,出于保护的原因,大多数房屋被禁止参观。这个是允许游客进入的普通住宅之一。我可以进去并深入解他们的房屋结构以及房间的布置方式。由于岁月的侵蚀,墙面已显示出腐烂的迹象。

The Odeon

In the southwest region of the city, I could see this small theatre The Odeon. It was a smaller roofed theatre built in 80 BC that could contain 1500 spectators. The Large Theatre in the city was used for staging drama whereas the Odeon was built for a more educated audience, as well as a musical concert performance.

在城市的西南区,我可以看到这个小剧院Odeon。它是一个较小的屋顶剧院,建于公元前80年,可容纳1500名观众。这座城市的大型剧院被用作公众舞台剧的演出,而这个小剧院则是为受教育的观众而建造的,并用于音乐会演出。

The central bath

It was said that Roman empire finally collapsed because they lost the desire to fight and indulged in comforts like baths. It was true that I could find the ruins of bath in many Roman cities like Arles, Pisa, Roma, Tarragona … Roman citizens really enjoyed having bath so they built many luxurious bath houses in their cities. The Central Baths were under construction at the time of the eruption so it was just an open court yard after it was excavated.

罗马帝国因为失去了战斗的欲望并沉迷于安逸而最终分崩离析。在阿尔勒,比萨,罗马,塔拉戈纳等许多城市,我都在罗马浴场的废墟遍布足迹。罗马公民非常热衷于洗浴这种享受,因此他们在自己的城市建造了许多豪华的浴场。火山喷发时,中央浴场正在建设中,因此挖掘后这里只是一个开放的庭院。

Casa di Cecilio Giocondo

In Pompeii, every house records the daily activity of the local people before they are buried under the volcanico ash. This is the house of Cecilio Giocondo who was a banker. His identity and name was deduced from the archive of 154 waxed boards excavated which recorded the amounts paid by the persons who buy the goods or paid the rents.

庞贝城的每所房屋都记录了当地居民在被火山灰掩埋之前的日常活动。这是银行家塞西利奥·乔康多(Cecilio Giocondo)的房子。他的身份和名字是从154个打蜡板的档案中发现的,其中记录了购买商品或支付租金的金额。

This house attracted me a lot because of its elegant garden surrounded by the perystyliums; in the Roman epoch, perystylium is the symbol of residence of wealthy family and is regarded as the symbol of upper class in the classical era.

这所房子非常吸引我的眼球,它典雅的花园环绕着列柱廊。在罗马时代,列柱廊是富裕家庭住所的象征,在古代被视为上层阶级的象征。

The house of the Golden Cupids

The garden was also decorated with reliefs and marble sculptures, and was dedicated to the Egyptian gods. There was a painting of Anubis, god of the dead, here. The house is called in this way because Cupids is engraved on two gold medallions that decorate the portico.

花园里还装饰浮雕和大理石雕塑,是献给埃及众神的。这里有一幅死神阿努比斯的画。这座房子之所以叫金色丘比特,是因为丘比特像刻在装饰门廊的两个金质纪念章上。

Casa di marco lucrezio sulla via stabiana

Before visiting Pompeii, I did not make a specific travel plan so I just visited in the city aimlessly and entered the room that I thought beautiful. This house has a small garden with a marble fountain. The statue inside the fountain is Silenus, a companion of the god of wine Dionysus in Greek mythology. The wall of the house is decorated with fresco and on the floor, there is a delicate moisac diagram.

在参观庞贝城之前,我并没有制定具体的旅行计划,因此我只是漫无目的地参观了这座城市,然后进入中意的房间。这所房子里有一个大理石喷泉的小花园。喷泉内的雕像是西勒努斯(Silenus),即希腊神话中的酒神狄俄尼索斯的同伴。房屋的墙壁装饰有壁画,地板上有精美的水波纹图。

Lupanar

The interesting thing in Pompeii is when you cross one street by street, you could not find any modern elements in every corner of the city. Every piece of stone and brick in this city has the history of 2000 years. In this street corner, I found this building called Lupanar which stands for brothel in Roman word. The building was classified as brothel because many erotic paintings and graffis were found after excavations. Prostitution in ancient Rome was legal and licensed so it would not be a surprise to find a brothel at that time.

庞贝城的有趣之处在于,当你穿街过巷时,在城市的每个角落都找不到任何现代元素。这里的每块砖石都有2000年的历史。在这个街角,我发现了这座名为Lupanar的建筑,该建筑物意思是罗马词中的妓院。它被认为是妓院是因为在发掘后发现了许多色情画和涂鸦。古罗马的嫖娼是合法并且有营业执照,所以找到那个时期的妓院就不足为奇了。

Terme Stabiane

The Pompeians relaxed in the weekends not only in brothels but have spa as well. The Stabiane bath is the place for them to have their daily break in the spa. The baths culture of Roman Empire had a long history. This bath could be traced back to the 2nd century BC. The heating was guaranteed by a piping system in the walls and double floors that circulated the hot air coming from the furnaces and from braziers. 

庞贝人在周末不仅在妓院里放松身心,还会去浴场做水疗。 Stabiane浴是他们每天在水疗中心休息的地方。罗马帝国的浴场文化历史悠久。这个浴池的历史可以追溯到公元前2世纪。墙壁和双层地板中的管道系统保证了供热,该系统将来自炉子和火盆中的热空气进行循环。

Casa degli Epidii

This spectacular house was built in 2 century B.C. It belongs to Marcus Epidius Rufus so it is called house of Epidii. It draws my attenton due to its 16 doric columns in the center of the house. The columns are located in the atrium of Corinthian type which is widely applied in Athens but quite rare in Pompeii.

这个壮观的房子建于公元前2世纪,它属于Marcus Epidius Rufus,所以被称为Epidii的房子。房子中央有16个多立克圆柱,它因此吸引了我的注意。柱子所在的是科林斯式的中庭,在雅典广泛使用,但在庞贝城中很少见。

Forum

To see the most traditional building of Roman Empire, the Forum is always the best place. It is the core of daily life of the city and houses all the main public buildings for city administration and justice, business management, trade activities, and religious worships.

要参观罗马帝国最传统的建筑,广场始终是最好的地方。它是城市日常生活的核心,并设有所有主要的公共建筑,用于城市管理和司法系统,商业管理,贸易活动和宗教崇拜。

The Temple of Jupiter

For example, we could find this temple of Jupiter at the north end of the forum, built in mid-2nd century BC. Jupiter was the ruler of the gods and the protector of Rome so his temple was always the center of Roman Religion. Unfortunately, now we could simply imagine how it looked like because the only remaining on the square is the base and several columns.


例如,我们可以在广场北端看到这座朱比特神庙,该神庙建于公元前2世纪中叶。朱比特是众神的统治者和罗马的保护神,因此他的神庙始终是罗马宗教的核心。不过,现在我们只能简单地脑补一下它是什么样子了,因为广场上唯一剩下的就是基座和几列柱子。

Macellum

On the east of the forum, we could see the Macellum, the market of Pompeii. It is difficult to know the function of the buildings for me but the archeologists could judge it from the remains of cereals and fruits in the north side of the building and fish scales and bones in the middle of the courtyard. The entrance of the market could be recognized by the three marble columns at the left side of this picture.

在广场的东部可以看到Macellum,即庞贝的市场。对我来说很难知晓该建筑物的功能,但是考古学家根据建筑物北侧的谷物和水果以及院子中部的鱼鳞和骨头的残骸来判断它是一座市场。市场入口可以通过该图左侧的三个大理石柱来识别。

Archi onorari 

On the sides of the temple of Jupiter, there were two old honorary arches made of bricks. This arch dedicated to Drusus, son of Emperor Tiberius was built in the era of Tiberius (14-37 AD) near the temple of Fortuna Augusta. The arch together with many buildings represented the imperial cult. It is a form of state religion in which an emperor of Roman Empire are worshipped as demigods or deities. This is an effective tool for dictators to rule the country.

在朱比特神庙的侧面,有两个用砖砌成的荣誉拱门。这座献给Tiberius皇帝之子德鲁斯的拱门建于Tiberius时代(公元14-37年),靠近奥古斯都神庙。这座拱门与许多建筑物一起代表了对帝国的崇拜。这是一种国家宗教形式,罗马帝国皇帝被奉为半神或神。这是独裁者统治国家的有效工具。

Tempio della Fortuna Augusta

This is the temple dedicated to the Emperor Augustu. It has marble capitals and columns and with the altar at the front. It is also one example of the imperial worship throughout the Roman Empire. This kind of worship has left a deep impact to many people even after the empire collapsed. Many european rulers had claimed that they inherited the Roman empire but obviously there is no such a relationship at all.

这是献给奥古斯都皇帝的神庙。它装饰有大理石的柱头和柱子,祭坛位于神庙前。这个神庙也是整个罗马帝国崇拜的一个例子。即使在帝国崩溃后,这种崇拜也对许多人产生了深远的影响。许多欧洲统治者声称他们继承了罗马帝国的衣钵,但显然根本就没有这种关系。

The Amphitheatre of Pompeii

Another typical symbol of Roman city is the Amphitheatre. This one is the earliest Roman amphitheatre built of stone. It is located at the east side of the Via dell’Abbondanza. Its past represents the bloody gladiatorial culture of Roman Empire. Now it becomes a place for public event and concert.

古罗马城市的另一个典型标志是露天剧场。这是最早的用石头建造的罗马圆形剧场。它位于Abbondanza大街的东侧。它的过去代表着罗马帝国血腥的角斗士文化。现在它已成为举办公共活动和音乐会的地方。

Casa del Fauno

I totally spent more than 5 hours in Pompeii. Lastly I have to highlight this one, Casa del Fauno. It was one of the largest and the luxurious private residences in Pompeii. The house was named by the bronze statue of the dancing faun located in the impluvium, a basin for catching rainwater. Fauns are spirits of untamed woodland.

我在庞贝旅游总共花了5个多小时。最后我要特意提一下这个房子Casa del Fauno。它是庞贝最大的豪华私人住宅之一。这座房子的名字是由舞池中的青铜雕像福恩命名的。福恩是未驯服的森林精灵。

Alexander Mosaic, the Battle of Issus 

The House of the Faun covers nearly 3000 square metres and has two atriums, the Tuscan and the peristyle atrium. Its colonnaded gardens contain Ionic and Doric columns. The jewel of the crown for this house is the famous Alexander Mosaic, depicting the Battle of Issus in 333 BC between Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia. The mosaic is now preserved in the museum of Napoli so we could not see it here.

这个住宅占地近3000平方米,有两个中庭,托斯卡纳和长型柱式中庭。它的柱廊花园包含艾奥尼亚式和多立克式柱。这座房子里的吉光片羽就是著名的亚历山大马赛克地板镶嵌画,它描绘了公元前333年亚历山大大帝与波斯大流士三世之间的伊苏斯战役。该画现在保存在那不勒斯博物馆中,因此我们在这里看不到它。

The house 2000 years ago includes one kitchen, one living room and many bedrooms with furnitures. It is even equipped with a private bath system. Its owner must be a very wealthy person.

这个2000年前的房屋包括一个厨房,一个客厅和许多带家具的卧室。它甚至配备了完善的盆浴系统。它的所有者一定是一个富可敌国的人。

The Mount Vesuvius

This is the exit of the archeological park. The park is so large that it is difficult to cover every corner in the city but for most people it was enough for them to familiarize with the buildings of Roman empire. In this picture, we could see clearly the volcano Vesuvius that caused the ruin of the city. On one hand, it was a tragedy that the volcano was the murderer who had killed 20,000 people in the instant. However, on the other side, the volcano ash kept the original form of the city and Pompeii is the only city of Roman empire that is well preserved. So whether the volcano did it correct or not? Who knows ?! Let the history jusge it.

这是考古公园的出口。公园如此之大游客很难覆盖城市的每个角落,但对于大多数人来说,足够让他们熟悉罗马帝国的建筑了。在这张照片,我们可以清楚地看到导致这座城市毁灭的维苏威火山。一方面,这绝对是个悲剧,火山是瞬间杀死了20,000人的元凶。但是,另一方面,火山灰却完整地保留了该城市的原貌,并且庞贝城也是罗马帝国唯一一座保存完好的城市。那么,究竟是对还是错?还是让历史来判断吧。