Christmas trip in the city of Renaissance

文艺复兴之都的圣诞旅行

Florence is the capital city of the Tuscany region. It is the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has been called the Athens of the Middle Ages. The historic centre of Florence is listed as a World Heritage Site in 1982. It is regarded as one of the most artistic city of the world in my eyes. You could find the David staring at faraway and the Venus emerging slowly from the Po river. This Christmas holiday , I finally visited this famous city to filfill my dreams.

佛罗伦萨是托斯卡纳地区的首府。它是文艺复兴的发源地,被称为中世纪的雅典。斐冷翠的老城区于1982年列为世界文化遗产。在我心中,它是世界上最具有艺术气息的城市之一。在这里,广场上大卫雕像凝视远方, 维纳斯女神自波河中缓缓而出。这个圣诞假期,我终于来到这座著名的城市完成了我的梦想。

Vittorio Monti – Czardas
Piazza del Duomo
Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore

When I just arrived at the station Firenze Santa Maria, it was at night already. The dome of the famous cathedrale Santa Maria del Fiore was immediately within my sight. Just within a few minutes’ walk, I could scrutinize the huge cathedrale from top to bottom. Although it was a cold winter night, large amounts of visitors flocked here and took pictures with the christmas trees in front of the church.

当我刚到达圣母玛利亚车站时,已经是月上柳梢了。著名的圣母百花大教堂穹顶就在我眼前若隐若现。步行不到几分钟,我就可以在近处从上到下仔细观察这座巨大的教堂。虽然这是一个寒冷的冬夜,但还是有大批游客涌入这里,与教堂前的圣诞树合影留念。

Piazza San Marco

After one night’s rest, I started my trip from the Piazza San Marco because it was quite near my hotel. The convent on the picture is now the Museo Nazionale di San Marco; during the 15th century it was home to two famous Dominicans, the painter Fra Angelico and the preacher Girolamo Savonarola.

休息了一晚后,我从圣马可广场开始我的旅程,那里离我下榻的酒店很近。照片里的这个修道院现在是圣马可博物馆;在15世纪,它是两位多米尼加名人画家弗拉·安吉利科和传教士吉罗拉莫·萨沃纳罗拉的家。

Galleria dell’Accademia

Florence is a small city but it owns many art galleries. Next I arrived at the Galleria dell’Accademia. It is an art museum known as the home of Michelangelo’s sculpture David. It was the first professional art academy in Europe. It keeps large amounts of sculptures finished by Michelangelo and a large collection of paintings by Florentine artists.

佛罗伦萨虽然是个小城市,不过有许多美术馆。接下来我来到了学院美术馆。这是一个艺术博物馆,米开朗基罗的雕塑大卫就收藏在此处。它是欧洲第一座专业美术学院。它保存着大量米开朗基罗的雕塑和佛罗伦萨艺术家的绘画作品。

David

David is a marble sculpture created between 1501 and 1504 by the Italian artist Michelangelo. It was originally placed in a public square, outside the Palazzo Vecchio but was moved to the Galleria dell’Accademia in 1873, and replaced at the original location by a replica. It symbolizes the defence of civil liberties of the Republic of Florence.

大卫是意大利艺术家米开朗基罗于1501年至1504年间创作的大理石雕塑。它最初被放置在旧宫外的一个广场上,但在1873年被移到了学院美术馆,并在原来的位置放置了一个复制。它象征着捍卫佛罗伦萨共和国的公民自由。

Palazzo Medici Riccardi

Beside the gallery, it is the Palazzo Medici Riccardi. It is a Renaissance palace designed by Michelozzo di Bartolomeo for Cosimo de’ Medici, head of the Medici banking family, and was built between 1444 and 1484. The palace was inhabited by the members of the family until 1659, when Ferdinando II sold it to the Riccardi marquises.

学院美术馆旁边是美第奇·里卡迪宫。这是一座文艺复兴时期的宫殿,由米歇洛佐·巴托洛梅奥为美第奇银行家族的首领科西莫·美第奇设计,建于1444年至1484年间。这座宫殿由家族成员居住到1659年,之后费迪南多二世将宫殿卖给了里卡迪侯爵。

Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore 

At the south of the Palazzo Medici Riccardi, it is the symbol of Florence, the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore. It was built in 1296 in the Gothic style, designed by Arnolfo di Cambio and was completed by 1436, with the brown dome designed by Filippo Brunelleschi. The dome had a brillant colored decoration, even from far away, it could be recogonized easily. The design of the exterior of the basilica is special with polychrome marble geometric panels in various shades of green and pink, bordered by white. There is tall bell tower next to the cathedral. It is so tall that you have to look up to the sky and see the top. The whole cathedral is so large that it is impossible to take a full picture of it.

在美第奇·里卡迪宫殿的南边就是是佛罗伦萨的标志,圣母百花大教堂。这座哥特式风格教堂建于1296年,由阿诺尔福·坎比奥设计,1436年完工。棕色穹顶是由菲利波·布鲁内莱斯基设计。穹顶上有一个鲜艳的彩色装饰,即使从很远的地方,也可以很容易辨认。教堂的外部设计别具匠心,彩色大理石的几何图案面板采取了混合着绿色和粉色的色调,边缘则是白色。大教堂旁边有一座高大的钟楼。它太高了,你必须仰望天空才能看到它的顶部。整个教堂宏伟无比,但很难拍一张全景。

Giotto’s Campanile

The bell tower represents the standard Gothic architecture designed by Giotto with rich sculptural decorations and its polychrome marble encrustations. It is 84.7 metres tall and has polygonal buttresses at each corner.

这座钟塔楼是典型的乔托设计的哥特式建筑,有丰富的雕塑装饰和多色大理石镶嵌。它高达84.7米,每个角落都有多边形扶壁。

Basilica di Santa Maria Novella 

There was another church near the train station with the similar decoration. It is the Basilica di Santa Maria Novella, the first great basilica in Florence. Its name is taken by the train station.

火车站附近还有另一座教堂,也有类似的装饰。它是新圣母玛利亚大教堂,佛罗伦萨的第一座大教堂。它的名字取自火车站。

Piazza della Repubblica

Florence is a city that you will always find surprise in any place. After I walked through one huge arch, I arrived at one square Piazza della Repubblica. It was originally the site of the city’s forum; The square’s Giubbe Rosse cafe has long been a meeting place for famous artists and writers, notably those of futurism. Now you could still have a drink here. The porticos with the triumphal arch, called the “Arcone”, was designed by Micheli. The words on the Arc are L’ANTICO CENTRO DELLA CITTÀ DA SECOLARE SQUALLOREA VITA NUOVA RESTITUITO. It means the ancient centre of the city / restored from age-old squalor / to new life.

佛罗伦萨是一个你在任何角落都会感到惊奇的城市。穿过一个巨大的拱门后,我来到了共和广场。它最初是城市论坛的举办地;广场的朱比·罗西咖啡馆长期以来一直是著名艺术家和作家的聚会场所。你也可以像那些未来主义的艺术名流一样在这里喝一杯。凯旋门的门廊被称为“拱门” ,是由米凯利设计的。拱门上的文字是意大利语 L’ANTICO CENTRO DELLA CITTÀDA SECOLARE SQUALLOREA VITA NUOVA RESTITUITO。它的意思是古老的城市中心从旧时代的肮脏恢复到新的生活。

Orsanmichele

On the south side of the square, there is one church called Orsanmichele that was originally built as a grain market in 1337 by Francesco Talenti, Neri di Fioravante, and Benci di Cione. Between 1380 and 1404, it was converted into a church used as the chapel of Florence’s powerful craft and trade guilds. On the ground floor of the square building are the 13th-century arches that originally formed the loggia of the grain market.

在广场的南侧,有一座名为奥桑米歇尔的教堂,最初是由弗朗西斯科·塔伦蒂、尼里·菲奥拉万特和本西·西奥内于1337年建成的谷物市场。1380年至1404年间,它被改建成一座教堂,用作佛罗伦萨手工艺和贸易公会的礼拜堂。建筑的第一层是13世纪的拱门,成为最早的谷物市场的凉廊。

Piazza della Signoria

Further south of the Orsanmichele, we could find another symbole of Florence, Piazza della Signoria, that is a L-shaped square in front of the Palazzo Vecchio. It records the long history of the Florentine Republic and is still the political focus of the city. On this square, there are some two wheel cabriolet for tourists to ride. For me, it was really amazing to see the real cariolet driven by horse.

再往南走,我们可以看到佛罗伦萨的另一个标志领主广场,这是旧宫前面的一个L形广场。它记录了佛罗伦萨共和国的悠久历史,至今仍是城市的政治焦点。在这个广场上,有一些两轮敞篷马车供游客乘坐。对我来说,看到真正的马车真是太棒了。

Fontana del Nettuno

The Fontana del Nettuno is situated on the Piazza della Signoria in front of the Palazzo Vecchio. It was built in 1565 and designed by Baccio Bandinelli and created by other collaborators. The bronze and marble sculptures are river gods, laughing satyrs and sea-horses emerging from the water. The scupltures in Italy could always impress me even if it is just a small one in the fountain.

海神喷泉位于旧宫前面的领主广场上。它建于1565年,由Baccio Bandinelli设计并由其他合作者一起创作。这些青铜和大理石雕塑是河神、嬉笑的森林神和从水中冒出的海马。意大利的雕塑总能给我留下深刻印象,即使它只是喷泉里的一个个小雕像。

Palazzo Vecchio

The Palazzo Vecchio (“Old Palace”) is the town hall of the city. This massive, Romanesque, crenellated fortress-palace overlooks the square with its copy of Michelangelo’s David statue. Tourists like to take pictures here.

维奇奥宫(旧宫)是这座城市的市政厅。这座巨大罗马式的、城墙有锯齿的堡垒式宫殿俯瞰着广场,广场上有米开朗基罗的大卫雕像复制品。游客们都特喜欢在这里拍照。

First Courtyard

Going through the entrance, it was the first courtyard designed in 1453 by Michelozzo. The Putto with Dolphin on top of the basin is a copy of the original. This small statue was originally placed in the garden of the Villa Medici at Careggi.

穿过入口,这是米开洛佐在1453年设计的外庭院。这个水盆顶的海豚也是复制品。这座小雕像最初放置在卡雷吉的美第奇别墅花园里。

Salone dei Cinquecento

This palace is famous for displaying arts in its hall and rooms. The Salone dei Cinquecento was a big hall built in 1494 by Simone del Pollaiolo. On the walls, there are large and expansive frescoes that depict battles and military victories by Florence over Pisa and Siena. The famous works were lost fom here, including the Battle of Cascina by Michelangelo and the Battle of Anghiari by Leonardo da Vinci. Even now no one knows where they are.

这座宫殿以在大厅和房间里展示艺术品而闻名。五百沙龙是西蒙德尔波莱奥洛于1494年建造的一个大厅。墙上巨幅的壁画描绘了佛罗伦萨对比萨和锡耶纳的战斗胜利。一些著名的壁画包括米开朗基罗的卡斯金纳战役和达芬奇的安格里之战从这里莫名丢失了。即使现在也无迹可循。

Defeat of the Pisans at the Tower of San Vincenzo

This is the picture Defeat of the Pisans at the Tower of San Vincenzo drawn by Giorgio Vasari displayed in Salone dei Cinquecento.

这是乔治·瓦萨里绘制的比萨人在圣文森佐塔的失败的画作,陈列在这个大厅里。

Room of Leo x

This is one of the room in the palace. Every room here has beautiful paintings and each painting has a story, there is one room is named after Jupiter and another room has the style of the four elements. There are too many rooms in the palace so I will not list all of them.

这是旧宫里的一个房间。这里的每一个房间墙上都有美轮美奂的画作,每一幅画都有一个故事,有一个房间是以朱庇特命名的,还有一个房间是有四元素的主题。宫殿里的房间太多了,所以我就不一一列举。

After I finished the tour of all the rooms, I could climb to the top of the tower of the palace and have the panoromic view of the city. Most of the houses in Florence were built with the red bricks. I could see clearly the Arno river and the bridges over the river. The old houses alongside the river are the testimony of the old history of this medieval city.

在参观完所有的房间后,我登到宫殿的塔顶上,欣赏这座城市的全景。佛罗伦萨的大多数房子是用红砖建造的。我能清楚地看到阿诺河以及河上的桥。河边的老房子是这座中世纪城市古老历史的见证。

Ponte Vecchio

The oldest and most beautiful bridge in Florence is the Ponte Vecchio. It is a medieval stone closed-spandrel segmental arch bridge. There are some shops on the roof covered bridge and it makes the road too narrow so I would like cross the river through another bridge to avoid the crowd on the bridge.

佛罗伦萨最古老、最美丽的桥是维奇奥桥,它是一座中世纪的石制封闭式拱肩节段拱桥。桥上有一些商店,这使得道路太窄,所以我绕道另一座桥过河,躲避桥上的人群。

Ponte Santa Trinita

The Ponte Santa Trìnita is another Renaissance bridge, the oldest elliptic arch bridge in the world, characterised by three flattened ellipses. Standing on this bridge, I can observe meticulously the whole structure of the beautiful Ponte Vecchio.

圣三一桥是另一座文艺复兴时期的桥梁,世界上最古老的椭圆形拱桥,有三个扁平的椭圆桥洞。站在这座桥上,我可以仔细观察对面美丽维奇奥桥的整个结构。

Palazzo Pitti

After I crossed the river, the next destination is the Palazzo Pitti. It dated from 1458 and was originally the town residence of Luca Pitti, an ambitious Florentine banker. The palace was bought by the Medici family in 1549 and became the chief residence of the ruling families of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.

过了河之后,下一个目的地是皮蒂宫。它的历史可以追溯到1458年,最初是卢卡·皮蒂的住所,他是一位雄心勃勃的佛罗伦萨银行家。这座宫殿于1549年被美第奇家族买下,成为托斯卡纳大公国家族的主要住所。

Palazzo Pitti

In the late 18th century, the palazzo was used as a power base by Napoleon and later served for a brief period as the principal royal palace of the newly united Italy. The palace was donated to the Italian people by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1919. It is now the largest museum in Florence. Here we could see many paintings of Raphael.

18世纪末,拿破仑将宫殿用作己用,后来在一段短暂的时期内,它成为新建立的统一的意大利王国的主要皇宫。这座宫殿后来在1919年被国王维克托·伊曼纽尔三世捐赠给意大利人民。它如今是佛罗伦萨最大的博物馆。在这里我们可以看到许多拉斐尔的油画。

Sala dei Pappagalli

This is one room in the palace. In the Medici perod, it was the antechamber of the Grand Prince Ferdinando.

这是宫殿里的一个房间。在美第奇时期,它是费迪南多大王子的前厅。

Sala del Trono

It was the Audience room of the apartment of the Grand prince Ferdinando. From 1865, under the House of Savoy, it became the throne room. This is the seat of the King of Savoy.

这是费迪南多大王子的客厅。从1865年起,在萨瓦家族的统治下,它成为了王权室。图中这是萨瓦国王的座位。

Salotto Celeste

This room used to be the music room of the apartment of the Grand Prince Ferdinando. In the 18th century, it was used as the dining room by the Lorraine family. The chandelier in this room was very spectacular. It was the only one thing that has survived from the Medici period.

这个房间曾经是费迪南多大王子的音乐室。18世纪,洛林家族把它用作餐厅。这个房间的枝行吊灯非常精致,也是美第奇时期唯一保留下来的物品。

Piazzale Michelangelo

I have spent much time in the palace Piti because there were so many things displaying. When I left it, the sun began to go down. The Piazzale Michelangelo is a good place to see the sun set since it is a high point in Florence. At this place, all the major land marks of the city could be seen without any obstructions.

因为这里陈列了太多展品,我在宫殿里花了很多时间。当我离开时,太阳开始下山了。米开朗基罗广场是翡冷翠观赏日落的好地方,它是一个制高点。在这个广场上,城市的所有主要地标都一览无余。

Badia Fiorentina

On this high land, we could not only see the cathedral Sainta Maria del Fiore and palazzo Vechio, but also the bell tower of Badia Fiorentina. These are most obvious buidings. The Badìa Fiorentina is an abbey and now becomes home to the Monastic Communities of Jerusalem. It was said that Dante used to live near the area so I would like to see it.

在这片高地上,我们不仅可以看到圣母百花大教堂和旧宫,还可以看到佛罗伦萨巴迪亚钟楼。这些都是最显眼的建筑。巴迪亚现在成为耶路撒冷修道院的所在地。据说但丁以前住在附近,所以我想去看看。

When I went back to the north side of the river, the sun has started to go down and sky was aglow with sunset colours. The bridge was immersed slowly into the darkness.

当我回到河的北边时,太阳已经开始下山,余晖照红了天空。桥慢慢地浸入在黑暗之中。

Basilica di Santa Croce

After taking pictures at the high land, the night had come and I was on my way back. This is another famous church Basilica of Santa Croce. It buried the most illustrious Italians, such as Michelangelo, Galileo, Machiavelli, the poet Foscolo, the philosopher Gentile and the composer Rossini, so it is known also as the “Temple of the Italian Glories”.

在高地拍照后,夜幕降临,我开始返程。这是另一个著名的圣十字大教堂。这里埋葬了最杰出的意大利人,如米开朗基罗、伽利略、马基雅维利、诗人福斯科罗、哲学家加蒂莱、作曲家罗西尼等,因此也被称为“意大利荣耀的殿堂”。

Monumento a Dante Alighieri

On the square of Santa Croce, the statue of poet Dante Alighieri could be found next to Basilica of Santa Croce. It was built in 1865 by Italian sculptor Enrico Pazzi. Dante’s Divine Comedy is widely known as the most important poem of the Middle Ages.

在圣十字广场上,诗人但丁·阿里吉耶里的雕像就在圣十字教堂旁边。它由意大利雕塑家恩里科·帕齐于1865年建造。但丁的《神曲》被誉为中世纪最重要的诗歌。

 Galleria degli Uffizi

When I went back to have dinner, I passed by the famous Galleria degli Uffizi. It was one of the most important Italian museums also one of the largest and best known in the world and holds a collection of priceless works, particularly from the period renaissance. There too many tourists here. It is recommended to book the ticket online before the visit.

当我回去吃晚餐的时候,我路过著名的乌斐兹美术馆。它是意大利最重要的博物馆,也是世界上最大最著名的博物馆之一,收藏了许多珍贵的作品,尤其是文艺复兴时期的作品。这里的游客太多了。建议在参观前在线预订门票。

The Birth of Venus

One of the most famous work in the gallery is The Birth of Venus painted by the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli in the mid 1480s. It depicts the goddess Venus arriving at the shore after her birth, when she had emerged from the sea.

美术馆最著名的作品之一是意大利艺术家桑德罗·波提切利在14世纪80年代中期创作的《维纳斯的诞生》,它描绘了女神维纳斯在出生后从海上浮出水面来到岸边的情景。

Venus of Urbino

Another famous work The Venus of Urbino is painted by the Italian painter Titian. It depicts a nude young woman, representing the goddess Venus, reclining on a couch in the sumptuous surroundings of a palace. 

另一幅著名的作品《乌比诺的维纳斯》是意大利画家提香所作。它描绘了一个裸体的年轻女子,代表维纳斯女神,躺在一个豪华的宫殿里的沙发上。

Loggia dei Lanzi

The Loggia dei Lanzi is a building on a corner of the Piazza della Signoria adjoining the Uffizi Gallery. It consists of wide arches open to the street. Here there are many statues to be seen. If you are insterested in statues, this will be a great place.

兰齐凉廊是一座位于毗邻乌菲兹画廊的广场的一角的建筑。它由通向街道的宽拱门组成。这里有许多雕像可以看。如果你对雕像很感兴趣,这将是一个合适的地方。

Piazza della Santissima Annunziata

Lastly on my way back to hotel,there was a square with fountains and scupltures. The square is named after the church of the Annunziata at the head of the square. In the center of the square, there is the bronze Equestrian statue of Ferdinando I. This would be my last place to visit in Florence before I went back back to hotel.

最后,在我回酒店的路上,一个广场上有喷泉和雕塑。这个广场是以广场上的救赎教堂命名的。广场中央有费迪南多一世的铜像,这将是我回酒店前在佛罗伦萨游览的最后一个地方。

Generally, Florence is superb place for people who are interested in arts and the history of renaissance. Although I am not a big fan of arts, I still felt it worthy and I think that 2 days are not enough at all to visit all the famous museums. If I could come next time, I will visit the Uffizi Gallery and the Boboli garden that I missed this time. Due to the different reasons, I could not visit them, it was a pity for me.

总之佛罗伦萨是一个对艺术和文艺复兴历史感兴趣的游客的绝佳去处。虽然我不是一个艺术迷,但我仍然觉得这是非常值得的,2天根本不够参观所有著名的博物馆。如果我下次能再来,我将去参观乌菲兹美术馆和这次错过的波波利花园。由于一些的原因,我这次不能去参观这些地方,实在很遗憾。

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