El viaje de Barcelona, la experiencia del art de Gaudí

巴塞罗那的高迪艺术之行

Sarasate Zigeunerweisen

Viajé por España por primera vez en mi vida. Tomé el tren de alta velocidad de Montpellier a la estación de Barcelona Saints el 17 de enero. Siempre había esperado visitar esta hermosa ciudad debido a las atraccions intensas de las artes architectonicas de Gaudí.

这是我人生第一次去西班牙旅游。1月17日,我乘高铁从蒙彼利埃前往巴塞罗那圣徒火车站。由于对高迪建筑艺术有强烈兴趣的鄙人一直希望能亲自参观这个美丽的城市。

El 17 de enero, el primer lugar de visita fue el parque Güell porque habité cerca del distrito de Gracia. De camino al parque, pude ver el Templo Expiatori del Sagrat Cor en la cumbre muy lejos. Es una iglesia católica romana ubicada en la cima del monte Tibidabo.

1月18日,因为我住在恩典区附近, 第一个探访的景点就是附近的桂尔公园。在去公园的路上,我看到远处山顶的圣心教堂。这是一座罗马天主教教堂,位于Tibidabo山的顶端。

el Templo Expiatori del Sagrat Cor

El edificio es obra del arquitecto español Enric Sagnier y fue completado por su hijo Josep Maria Sagnier i Vidal.

这座建筑是西班牙建筑师Enric Sagnier建造的,由他的儿子Josep Maria Sagnier I Vidal完成。

El Parque Güell

El Parque Güell es un sistema de parque público compuesto por jardines y elementos arquitectónicos ubicados en Carmel. El comerciante Eusebi Güell asignó el diseño del parque a Antoni Gaudí.El parque fue construido entre 1900 y 1914 y se inauguró oficialmente como parque público en 1926. En 1984, se inscribió en la lista del Patrimonio Mundial de la Humanidad bajo “Obras de Antoni Gaudí”.

桂尔公园是一个公园系统,由卡梅尔的花园和建筑元素构成。商人Eusebi Güell指定高迪设计这个公园。公园建于1900年至1914年之间,1926年正式作为公共公园开放。1984年,它以高迪艺术作品之一而被列入世界文化遗产目录。

El Parque Güell es el reflejo de la plenitud artística de Gaudí, que pertenece a su fase naturalista, él perfeccionó su estilo personal a través de la inspiración de figuras orgánicas. Puso en práctica una serie de nuevas soluciones estructurales en el análisis de la geometría. El parque es una obra de arte entre el realismo y la utopia.

桂尔公园反映的是高迪艺术作品中的自然主义。他通过有机结合的塑像获得灵感,完善个人风格。他在几何图形分析中采用了一系列新的结构手法,公园是介于现实主义和乌托邦之间的一件艺术品。

Es la salamandra de mosaico de Gaudí, conocida como “el drac” en la entrada principal.El colorido mosaico es un elemento de arte utilizado por Gaudí con frecuencia.

这是高迪的马赛克蜥蜴,坐落在主入口处,被称之为龙。彩色马赛克是高迪经常使用的艺术元素。

Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau

No muy lejos del parque Güell es el Hospital de la Santa Cruz y San Pablo. Es proyectados por el arquitecto Lluís Domènech i Montaner, uno de los principales representantes del modernismo catalán. El Hospital se fundó en 1401, por la fusión de seis hospitales. El nombre de la nueva institución fue Hospital de la Santa Creu (Hospital de la Santa Cruz). Hasta 1904, fue la principal institución asistencial del principado de Cataluña.En 1997, se inscribió en la lista del Patrimonio Mundial de la Humanidad.

离桂尔公园不远的地方是圣克鲁斯和圣保罗的医院。该医院是由建筑师Lluis Domènech i Montaner设计,他是现代加泰罗尼亚主义的主要代表之一。这个医院建于1401年,由6个医院合成。新医院的名称是圣克鲁医院。1904年以前,它是加泰罗尼亚王国的主要医疗援助机构。1997年,它被列入世界文化遗产。

 El pabellón de acceso, coronado por una esbelta torre y un reloj, cuenta con una fachada de ladrillo de cara vista que domina todo el conjunto, enriquecida con mosaicos de temas históricos y capiteles y ménsulas de piedra con forma de ángeles, unas obras sintéticas realizadas por un joven escultor, Pau Gargallo. También destacan los mosaicos de Mario Maragliano y la gran escalera y los techos, de reminiscencias islámicas. El hospital fue concebido para disponer de todos los servicios dentro. En el diseño se proyectaron calles, jardines, edificios con suministro de agua, una iglesia y un convento. El todo hospital ocupa una superficie equivalente a nueve manzanas.

医院入口大厅由一个漂亮的塔和一座钟表组成。俯瞰整个建筑群的大厅正面点缀了历史主题的马赛克和天使形状的柱石,这些是由年轻的雕塑家保罗·加加略创作的合成作品。医院的设计会提供全方位内部服务。包括街道、花园、通水的建筑物、教堂和修道院。整个医院占地面积相当于9个街区。

El Templo Expiatorio de la Sagrada Familia

En el sur del hospital es el Templo Expiatorio de la Sagrada Familia diseñada por el arquitecto Antoni Gaudí. Iniciada en 1882, está todavía en construcción… tal vez esté terminada hasta 2026. Cuando esté finalizada será la iglesia cristiana más alta del mundo. Los cuatro pináculos altos y descatados con decoraciones de cuentos de hadas han siempre sido el simbolo de Barcelona. La parte centrale representa a Jesucristo, y se rodea de cuatro torres identificadas como los evangelios. La torre del ábside simboliza a María, mientras que las doce restantes han vinculadas con los apóstoles.

在医院南边便是著名的圣家堂,它也是高迪设计的. 始建于1882年,现在仍在建造中。预计可能要到2026年才能完工。当它完成后,它将成为世界上最高的基督教堂。它四个高耸的童话故事般的尖塔一直都是巴塞罗那的象征。中心部分代表耶稣基督,围绕着四座福音塔。半圆拱顶的塔象征着玛丽亚,而其余的十二座塔则代表使徒。

Hay mucha gente aquí y es difícil de tomar una buena foto pero vale la pena visitarlo.
La estructura exterior de la Sagrada Familia se parece al edificio extraterrestre. Las ventanas azules parecen ojos de animales. Me gustan el Árbol de la Vida, los pináculos de las torres y las vitrales multicolors. Es una pena que no he visitado el interior de la Sagrada Familia porque muchos turistos hicieron cola.

这里有很多游客很难拍到高质量的照片但确实值得一看。圣家堂外型结构看起来仿佛是外星建筑,蓝色的窗户看起来就像动物的眼睛一样。我很喜欢它的生命之树,顶上的小尖塔和多边形的玻璃。很可惜因为太多游客都在排队我就没能参观圣家堂的内部。

La Plaza Monumental de Barcelona

La Plaza Monumental de Barcelona es cerca de la Sagrada Familia. Fue la última plaza de toros de la ciudad de Barcelona. El Parlamento de Cataluña, tras una votación, prohibió los espectáculos taurinos el 28 de julio de 2010.

巴塞罗那纪念碑广场离圣家堂很近。这是巴塞罗那市最后一个斗牛场。加泰罗尼亚议会经过表决,于2010年7月28日禁止了斗牛表演。

Arc de Triomf

Caminé hacia el sur hasta el Arc de Triomf. El Arco de Triunfo fue diseñado por el arquitecto José Vilaseca como entrada principal a la Exposición Universal de Barcelona de 1888. A diferencia de otros arcos de triunfo de marcado carácter militar, él tiene un mayor componente civil, caracterizado por el progreso artístico, científico y económico.

我一路向南走到凯旋门,这座凯旋门是建筑师何塞·维拉斯卡设计的,是1888年巴塞罗那世界博览会的主入口。与其他庆祝军事胜利的凯旋门不同的是,它更多体现的是艺术、科学和经济进步。

Mirador de Colom

Entonces, caminé a lo largo de la hermosa playa y pude ver un monumento alto. El Monumento a Colón es una escultura en homenaje al descubridor Cristóbal Colón. El monumento fue construido con motivo de la Exposición Universal de Barcelona de 1888. Inaugurado el 1 de junio de 1888, se convirtió enseguida en uno de los iconos más característicos de la ciudad. La dirección que apunta la sculptura Colón es el continente americano.

接下来我沿着美丽的海滩走到了一个高大的纪念碑。哥伦布纪念碑是为了纪念发现美洲的克里斯托弗·哥伦布而建的雕塑,也是为1888年巴塞罗那世界博览会开幕而建造的。它于1888年6月1日揭幕,很快成为该市最具代表的雕塑之一。哥伦布雕塑指向的方向就是美洲大陆。

El puerto de Barcelona 

El Monumento a Colón es situado en la plaza del Portal de la Paz. El puerto de Barcelona está aquí. Podemos ver muchas gaviotas en el puerto. Aunque es invierno, hay muchos exuberantes bosques al lado del mar.

哥伦布纪念碑位于和平之门广场上。巴塞罗那港就在这里。我们可以在港口看到很多海鸥。虽然现在是冬天,但海边长了很多茂盛的植被。

La plaza de España 

La plaza de España es un importante centro del tránsito de la ciudad. Fue construida durante la Exposición Internacional de 1929. Los turistas pueden acceder a la zona de Montjuïc, y donde se sitúa el Museo Nacional de Arte de Cataluña.

西班牙广场是这个城市的一个主要交通枢纽。它是在1929年国际博览会期间建造的。游客可以从这里进入位于加泰罗尼亚国家艺术博物馆所在的蒙锥克地区。

El Museo Nacional de Arte de Cataluña 

El Museo Nacional de Arte de Cataluña se constituyó en 1990 con la unión de las colecciones del Museo de Arte Moderno. La sede principal está ubicada en el Palacio Nacional, edificio situado en la montaña de Montjuïc, inaugurado en 1929 con motivo de la Exposición Internacional.

加泰罗尼亚国家艺术博物馆即现代艺术收藏品连盟成立于1990年。总部设在国家宫,就是这座位于蒙锥克山的建筑物,国家宫是在1929年的国际博览会开幕展览。

El castillo de Montjuic 

En la cumbre de Montjuïc es el Castillo de Montjuic, una antigua fortaleza militar. Históricamente el castillo ha tenido un importante papel en diversos episodios de la historia de Barcelona. Durante la época franquista, fue ejecutado aquí el presidente de la Generalidad de Cataluña, Lluís Companys. Es evidente que en la historia de España hay feroces conflictos entre el gobierno central y Catalunya.

在蒙锥克山上就是蒙锥克城堡,一座古老的军事堡垒。从历史上看,这座城堡在巴塞罗那历史上的各种事件中发挥了重要作用。在佛朗西斯执政期间,加泰罗尼亚自治区主席Llis Companys在这里被处决。显然在西班牙历史上,中央政府与加泰罗尼亚之间存在着激烈的冲突。


La Terraza en el Castillo de Montjuic

Es el mejor lugar en Barcelona para ver la puesta de sol en la terrazza.

在蒙锥克山的天台上是巴塞罗那最好的欣赏落日的地方。

Paella
Sangria

Para la cena me gustaba los platos tradicionales españoles, la paella de frutos de mar y la Sangria. La paella es una receta de cocina con base de arroz, con origen en la actual Comunidad Valenciana. El arroz se cocina junto a otros alimentos por ejemplo fruto de mar, carne y marisco en una sartén, generalmente ancha y con asas.


La sangría es una bebidaalcohólica preparada originaria de España y Portugal. Aunque existen multitud de recetas, generalmente consiste en vino, trozos de fruta, gaseosa, algún licor y azúcar. Sabia un poco dulce y agrio y me sentí mareado después de beberlo.

晚餐是我特喜欢的西班牙传统菜,海鲜饭和桑格利亚果酒。西班牙海鲜饭是一种以米饭为基础起源于瓦伦西亚大区的美食。米是与其他食物例如海产、肉类和贝壳一起煮的,通常是用大锅烹制。

桑格利亚果酒是西班牙和葡萄牙地区的酒精饮料。虽然有不同的配方,但通常都是用葡萄酒,水果片,汽水,以及一些烈酒和糖。尝起来有点酸甜,喝了一杯之后我会觉得头晕。

La Casa Batlló 

Visité la Casa Batlló la mañana del 19 enero. Es un edificio obra de Gaudí. La construcción se realizó entre los años 1904 y 1906. La fachada se hizo con piedra arenisca de Montjuïc, tallada según superficies regladas en forma alabeada. Las columnas tienen forma ósea, con representaciones vegetales. La carpintería es igualmente de superficies curvas, y las ventanas son de vidrios de colores de formas circulares. Gaudí conservó la forma rectangular de los balcones del edificio anterior, añadiendo unas barandillas de hierro con forma de antifaz, y dando al resto de la fachada una forma ondulada en sentido ascendente.

1月19日早上我去了巴特罗家。这是高迪设计的作品,建造于1904年至1906年期间。正面墙是用蒙锥克的砂岩按照表面上起伏雕刻而成。正面柱子是骨骼形状的,代表着植物叶脉。建筑木工同样是弯曲的弧面,窗户装饰着圆形的彩色玻璃。高迪保留了古建筑风格的长方形阳台,增加了一个反光铁栏杆,并使外观的其他部分呈向上的波形。

Patio interior

En la parte central del edificio se ubica el patio de luces, que fue ampliado por Gaudí para conseguir una mayor iluminación y ventilación. Este patio se cubrió con una claraboya de cristal sostenida por una estructura de hierro con forma de doble T, que apoya en una serie de arcos catenarios, y fue igualmente revestido de azulejos con una ingeniosa gradación de color desde el azul de la parte superior hasta el blanco de la inferior, para mejor aprovechamiento de la luz, lo que provoca la sensación de estar en una cueva submarina. 

巴特罗之家的中央是一个光之庭院,Gaudi为了提供更多的照明和通风而扩建这个庭院。这个庭院装点着由一个双T形铁结构支撑的水晶气窗。庭院由一系列链狀拱型结构支撑,墙面也被从上至下由蓝变白的渐变色覆盖,以更好地利用光线,并使人觉得自己在海底洞穴里。

Azotea

La terraza se enmarca con cuatro grupos de chimeneas decoradas con el perfil del dragón. Gaudí concibió este espacio de una forma funcional, para situar las salidas de humo y de ventilación. Las azoteas de los edificios eran como los sombreros de las personas, que denotan personalidad.

它的天台上嵌着四个烟囱组,装饰着龙的轮廓。这是高迪设计的功能性的房顶,为了方便排烟和通风。这个屋顶露台就像人的帽子一样。

La plaza de Cataluña

Visité después la plaza de Cataluña, uno de los centros de la ciudad. Hay muchas palomas en la plaza.

我随后游览了加泰罗尼亚广场,这是巴塞罗那的一个中心。广场上有很多鸽子。

La Santa Iglesia Catedral Basílica Metropolitana de la Santa Cruz y Santa Eulalia 

En el sur de la plaza, es la catedral gótica de Barcelona. La catedral actual se construyó durante los siglos XIII a XV sobre la antigua catedral románica. Está dedicada a la Santa Cruz desde el año 599 y a la Santa Eulalia,patrona de la ciudad de Barcelona a partir del año 877.

在广场的南部是巴塞罗那哥特大教堂。现在的大教堂基于古罗马的大教堂于十三世纪至十五世纪之间建成。它自599年起被献给圣十字,877年后又被献给巴塞罗那市的保护神圣尤拉利亚。

Cascada del Parque de la Ciudadela

La Cascada del parque de la Ciudadela fue construido entre 1875 y 1888 con un diseño general de José Fontseré, mientras que el proyecto hidráulico fue de Antoni Gaudí. La Cascada se sitúa en el ángulo norte del parque Ciudadela, cerca de la entrada por el Paseo Lluís Companys, donde se encontraba el Arco de Triunfo que daba la bienvenida a los visitantes de la Exposición de 1888. El monumento destaca por su profusión escultórica. Me gustan los carros dorados y la Esfinge que escupe agua.

城堡公园瀑布是在1875年至1888年期间建造的,由何塞·丰泰雷设计,而水利工程是由安东尼·高迪设计的。瀑布位于城堡公园的北角,靠近Iluis Companys大道入口处,那里就是欢迎1888年世博会参观者的凯旋门。这座纪念碑因其丰富多彩的雕刻而闻名,我喜欢它的金色马车和会喷水的狮身像。

El Palacio de la Música Catalana


Visité el Palais of Music la mañana del 20 de enero. El Palacio de la Música Catalana fue proyectado por el arquitecto barcelonés Lluís Domènech i Montaner. La construcción se llevó a cabo entre los años 1905 y 1908, con soluciones en la estructura muy avanzadas con la aplicación de grandes muros de cristal y la integración de todas las artes, escultura, mosaicos, vitrales y forja. En 1997 la Unesco incluyó el edificio en su relación del Patrimonio de la Humanidad.

1月20日上午,我游览了音乐宫。加泰罗尼亚音乐宫是由本地建筑师Llis Domènech i Montaner设计的。他在1905年至1908年期间进行了这项工作,采用了非常先进的构建方法,应用了大型玻璃墙,以及完整结合了所有雕塑、马赛克、水晶玻璃以及铸造元素。1997年,教科文组织将该建筑物列入世界文化遗产。

Escenario de la Sala de conciertos

En la boca del escenario,se encuentra el grupo escultórico de Diego Massana y continuado por el joven Pablo Gargallo que representa en la parte derecha el busto de Beethoven debajo de la cabalgata de las Valquirias con una clara simbología de la música clásica centroeuropea de Wagner y la representación de la música popular catalana en el lado izquierdo, con el busto de José Anselmo Clavé debajo de un gran árbol a los pies del cual se encuentra un grupo de cantantes.

在舞台上的出口,可以看到迭戈马萨纳以及年轻的巴勃罗·加尔加略设计的雕塑群。在右边瓦尔基里的马鞍下的贝多芬的像,象征着以瓦格纳为代表的中欧古典音乐,在左边一棵大树下,一群歌手站在这棵树的脚下,树下的José Anselmo Clavé像则代表着加泰罗尼亚的流行音乐。

La Casa Milà

El edificio de Gaudi esta siempre distintivo. La Casa Milà es un edificio modernista obra del arquitecto Antoni Gaudí, construido entre los años 1906 y 1910. La fachada presenta una continuidad formal y estilística que, por su forma sinuosa y ondulada, parece una roca modelada por las olas del mar. El edificio no tiene una sola línea recta, la fachada está diseñada de tal manera que es imposible trazar una línea vertical desde el techo hasta el suelo.

高迪的建筑总是与众不同。米拉之家是一座现代主义的建筑,由高迪于1906年至1910年建造。外观讲究形式和造型上的连续性,因为它曲折的波浪形,它看起来像是一块由海浪打磨的石块。这座建筑没有一条直线,它外观的设计导致无法从屋顶到地面绘制一条垂直线。

Azotea

En la azotea se encuentran un total de 30 chimeneas, dos torres de ventilación y seis salidas de escalera, diseñadas con diferentes soluciones estilísticas. Las chimeneas semejantes a cascos de guerrero son uno de los elementos más famosos y singulares de la azotea.

米拉之家屋顶上共有30个烟囱、2个通风塔和6个梯子出口,设计时采用不同的造型方法。像战士头盔一样的烟囱是屋顶上最著名的设计元素之一。

Interior de la Casa Milà

El interior de la Casa Milà está diseñado de forma funcional. Esto es la sala de estar.

米拉之家的内部根据不同功能而设计。这是起居室。

Camp Nou


El ultimo lugar es Camp Nou. Pero no es el fan de Barcelona. Solo tomé la foto fuera del estadio.

最后一个去的地方是诺坎普球场,但我不是巴塞罗那的球迷,我只是在体育场外面拍了一张照片。

Pasé tres días en Barcelona. Estoy muy cansada pero fue un buen viaje.
Experimenté las culturas únicas de Catalunya.Aunque no me gusta el estilo de Gaudi, disfruté del viaje que es diferente con la Francia. ¡Intento escribir mi nota de viaje en español como el mejor recuerdo de mi vida!El tiempo pasa facilmente pero no lo olvidaré nunca!

我在巴塞罗那待了三天。很累不过旅途很愉快。我体验了加泰罗尼亚独特的文化,虽然我不喜欢高迪的风格,但我享受着与法国不同的旅行。我尝试用西班牙语写下这段旅行作为我人生中最好的回忆,韶华易逝,莫负流年!

Christmas trip in the city of Renaissance

文艺复兴之都的圣诞旅行

Florence is the capital city of the Tuscany region. It is the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has been called the Athens of the Middle Ages. The historic centre of Florence is listed as a World Heritage Site in 1982. It is regarded as one of the most artistic city of the world in my eyes. You could find the David staring at faraway and the Venus emerging slowly from the Po river. This Christmas holiday , I finally visited this famous city to filfill my dreams.

佛罗伦萨是托斯卡纳地区的首府。它是文艺复兴的发源地,被称为中世纪的雅典。斐冷翠的老城区于1982年列为世界文化遗产。在我心中,它是世界上最具有艺术气息的城市之一。在这里,广场上大卫雕像凝视远方, 维纳斯女神自波河中缓缓而出。这个圣诞假期,我终于来到这座著名的城市完成了我的梦想。

Vittorio Monti – Czardas
Piazza del Duomo
Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore

When I just arrived at the station Firenze Santa Maria, it was at night already. The dome of the famous cathedrale Santa Maria del Fiore was immediately within my sight. Just within a few minutes’ walk, I could scrutinize the huge cathedrale from top to bottom. Although it was a cold winter night, large amounts of visitors flocked here and took pictures with the christmas trees in front of the church.

当我刚到达圣母玛利亚车站时,已经是月上柳梢了。著名的圣母百花大教堂穹顶就在我眼前若隐若现。步行不到几分钟,我就可以在近处从上到下仔细观察这座巨大的教堂。虽然这是一个寒冷的冬夜,但还是有大批游客涌入这里,与教堂前的圣诞树合影留念。

Piazza San Marco

After one night’s rest, I started my trip from the Piazza San Marco because it was quite near my hotel. The convent on the picture is now the Museo Nazionale di San Marco; during the 15th century it was home to two famous Dominicans, the painter Fra Angelico and the preacher Girolamo Savonarola.

休息了一晚后,我从圣马可广场开始我的旅程,那里离我下榻的酒店很近。照片里的这个修道院现在是圣马可博物馆;在15世纪,它是两位多米尼加名人画家弗拉·安吉利科和传教士吉罗拉莫·萨沃纳罗拉的家。

Galleria dell’Accademia

Florence is a small city but it owns many art galleries. Next I arrived at the Galleria dell’Accademia. It is an art museum known as the home of Michelangelo’s sculpture David. It was the first professional art academy in Europe. It keeps large amounts of sculptures finished by Michelangelo and a large collection of paintings by Florentine artists.

佛罗伦萨虽然是个小城市,不过有许多美术馆。接下来我来到了学院美术馆。这是一个艺术博物馆,米开朗基罗的雕塑大卫就收藏在此处。它是欧洲第一座专业美术学院。它保存着大量米开朗基罗的雕塑和佛罗伦萨艺术家的绘画作品。

David

David is a marble sculpture created between 1501 and 1504 by the Italian artist Michelangelo. It was originally placed in a public square, outside the Palazzo Vecchio but was moved to the Galleria dell’Accademia in 1873, and replaced at the original location by a replica. It symbolizes the defence of civil liberties of the Republic of Florence.

大卫是意大利艺术家米开朗基罗于1501年至1504年间创作的大理石雕塑。它最初被放置在旧宫外的一个广场上,但在1873年被移到了学院美术馆,并在原来的位置放置了一个复制。它象征着捍卫佛罗伦萨共和国的公民自由。

Palazzo Medici Riccardi

Beside the gallery, it is the Palazzo Medici Riccardi. It is a Renaissance palace designed by Michelozzo di Bartolomeo for Cosimo de’ Medici, head of the Medici banking family, and was built between 1444 and 1484. The palace was inhabited by the members of the family until 1659, when Ferdinando II sold it to the Riccardi marquises.

学院美术馆旁边是美第奇·里卡迪宫。这是一座文艺复兴时期的宫殿,由米歇洛佐·巴托洛梅奥为美第奇银行家族的首领科西莫·美第奇设计,建于1444年至1484年间。这座宫殿由家族成员居住到1659年,之后费迪南多二世将宫殿卖给了里卡迪侯爵。

Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore 

At the south of the Palazzo Medici Riccardi, it is the symbol of Florence, the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore. It was built in 1296 in the Gothic style, designed by Arnolfo di Cambio and was completed by 1436, with the brown dome designed by Filippo Brunelleschi. The dome had a brillant colored decoration, even from far away, it could be recogonized easily. The design of the exterior of the basilica is special with polychrome marble geometric panels in various shades of green and pink, bordered by white. There is tall bell tower next to the cathedral. It is so tall that you have to look up to the sky and see the top. The whole cathedral is so large that it is impossible to take a full picture of it.

在美第奇·里卡迪宫殿的南边就是是佛罗伦萨的标志,圣母百花大教堂。这座哥特式风格教堂建于1296年,由阿诺尔福·坎比奥设计,1436年完工。棕色穹顶是由菲利波·布鲁内莱斯基设计。穹顶上有一个鲜艳的彩色装饰,即使从很远的地方,也可以很容易辨认。教堂的外部设计别具匠心,彩色大理石的几何图案面板采取了混合着绿色和粉色的色调,边缘则是白色。大教堂旁边有一座高大的钟楼。它太高了,你必须仰望天空才能看到它的顶部。整个教堂宏伟无比,但很难拍一张全景。

Giotto’s Campanile

The bell tower represents the standard Gothic architecture designed by Giotto with rich sculptural decorations and its polychrome marble encrustations. It is 84.7 metres tall and has polygonal buttresses at each corner.

这座钟塔楼是典型的乔托设计的哥特式建筑,有丰富的雕塑装饰和多色大理石镶嵌。它高达84.7米,每个角落都有多边形扶壁。

Basilica di Santa Maria Novella 

There was another church near the train station with the similar decoration. It is the Basilica di Santa Maria Novella, the first great basilica in Florence. Its name is taken by the train station.

火车站附近还有另一座教堂,也有类似的装饰。它是新圣母玛利亚大教堂,佛罗伦萨的第一座大教堂。它的名字取自火车站。

Piazza della Repubblica

Florence is a city that you will always find surprise in any place. After I walked through one huge arch, I arrived at one square Piazza della Repubblica. It was originally the site of the city’s forum; The square’s Giubbe Rosse cafe has long been a meeting place for famous artists and writers, notably those of futurism. Now you could still have a drink here. The porticos with the triumphal arch, called the “Arcone”, was designed by Micheli. The words on the Arc are L’ANTICO CENTRO DELLA CITTÀ DA SECOLARE SQUALLOREA VITA NUOVA RESTITUITO. It means the ancient centre of the city / restored from age-old squalor / to new life.

佛罗伦萨是一个你在任何角落都会感到惊奇的城市。穿过一个巨大的拱门后,我来到了共和广场。它最初是城市论坛的举办地;广场的朱比·罗西咖啡馆长期以来一直是著名艺术家和作家的聚会场所。你也可以像那些未来主义的艺术名流一样在这里喝一杯。凯旋门的门廊被称为“拱门” ,是由米凯利设计的。拱门上的文字是意大利语 L’ANTICO CENTRO DELLA CITTÀDA SECOLARE SQUALLOREA VITA NUOVA RESTITUITO。它的意思是古老的城市中心从旧时代的肮脏恢复到新的生活。

Orsanmichele

On the south side of the square, there is one church called Orsanmichele that was originally built as a grain market in 1337 by Francesco Talenti, Neri di Fioravante, and Benci di Cione. Between 1380 and 1404, it was converted into a church used as the chapel of Florence’s powerful craft and trade guilds. On the ground floor of the square building are the 13th-century arches that originally formed the loggia of the grain market.

在广场的南侧,有一座名为奥桑米歇尔的教堂,最初是由弗朗西斯科·塔伦蒂、尼里·菲奥拉万特和本西·西奥内于1337年建成的谷物市场。1380年至1404年间,它被改建成一座教堂,用作佛罗伦萨手工艺和贸易公会的礼拜堂。建筑的第一层是13世纪的拱门,成为最早的谷物市场的凉廊。

Piazza della Signoria

Further south of the Orsanmichele, we could find another symbole of Florence, Piazza della Signoria, that is a L-shaped square in front of the Palazzo Vecchio. It records the long history of the Florentine Republic and is still the political focus of the city. On this square, there are some two wheel cabriolet for tourists to ride. For me, it was really amazing to see the real cariolet driven by horse.

再往南走,我们可以看到佛罗伦萨的另一个标志领主广场,这是旧宫前面的一个L形广场。它记录了佛罗伦萨共和国的悠久历史,至今仍是城市的政治焦点。在这个广场上,有一些两轮敞篷马车供游客乘坐。对我来说,看到真正的马车真是太棒了。

Fontana del Nettuno

The Fontana del Nettuno is situated on the Piazza della Signoria in front of the Palazzo Vecchio. It was built in 1565 and designed by Baccio Bandinelli and created by other collaborators. The bronze and marble sculptures are river gods, laughing satyrs and sea-horses emerging from the water. The scupltures in Italy could always impress me even if it is just a small one in the fountain.

海神喷泉位于旧宫前面的领主广场上。它建于1565年,由Baccio Bandinelli设计并由其他合作者一起创作。这些青铜和大理石雕塑是河神、嬉笑的森林神和从水中冒出的海马。意大利的雕塑总能给我留下深刻印象,即使它只是喷泉里的一个个小雕像。

Palazzo Vecchio

The Palazzo Vecchio (“Old Palace”) is the town hall of the city. This massive, Romanesque, crenellated fortress-palace overlooks the square with its copy of Michelangelo’s David statue. Tourists like to take pictures here.

维奇奥宫(旧宫)是这座城市的市政厅。这座巨大罗马式的、城墙有锯齿的堡垒式宫殿俯瞰着广场,广场上有米开朗基罗的大卫雕像复制品。游客们都特喜欢在这里拍照。

First Courtyard

Going through the entrance, it was the first courtyard designed in 1453 by Michelozzo. The Putto with Dolphin on top of the basin is a copy of the original. This small statue was originally placed in the garden of the Villa Medici at Careggi.

穿过入口,这是米开洛佐在1453年设计的外庭院。这个水盆顶的海豚也是复制品。这座小雕像最初放置在卡雷吉的美第奇别墅花园里。

Salone dei Cinquecento

This palace is famous for displaying arts in its hall and rooms. The Salone dei Cinquecento was a big hall built in 1494 by Simone del Pollaiolo. On the walls, there are large and expansive frescoes that depict battles and military victories by Florence over Pisa and Siena. The famous works were lost fom here, including the Battle of Cascina by Michelangelo and the Battle of Anghiari by Leonardo da Vinci. Even now no one knows where they are.

这座宫殿以在大厅和房间里展示艺术品而闻名。五百沙龙是西蒙德尔波莱奥洛于1494年建造的一个大厅。墙上巨幅的壁画描绘了佛罗伦萨对比萨和锡耶纳的战斗胜利。一些著名的壁画包括米开朗基罗的卡斯金纳战役和达芬奇的安格里之战从这里莫名丢失了。即使现在也无迹可循。

Defeat of the Pisans at the Tower of San Vincenzo

This is the picture Defeat of the Pisans at the Tower of San Vincenzo drawn by Giorgio Vasari displayed in Salone dei Cinquecento.

这是乔治·瓦萨里绘制的比萨人在圣文森佐塔的失败的画作,陈列在这个大厅里。

Room of Leo x

This is one of the room in the palace. Every room here has beautiful paintings and each painting has a story, there is one room is named after Jupiter and another room has the style of the four elements. There are too many rooms in the palace so I will not list all of them.

这是旧宫里的一个房间。这里的每一个房间墙上都有美轮美奂的画作,每一幅画都有一个故事,有一个房间是以朱庇特命名的,还有一个房间是有四元素的主题。宫殿里的房间太多了,所以我就不一一列举。

After I finished the tour of all the rooms, I could climb to the top of the tower of the palace and have the panoromic view of the city. Most of the houses in Florence were built with the red bricks. I could see clearly the Arno river and the bridges over the river. The old houses alongside the river are the testimony of the old history of this medieval city.

在参观完所有的房间后,我登到宫殿的塔顶上,欣赏这座城市的全景。佛罗伦萨的大多数房子是用红砖建造的。我能清楚地看到阿诺河以及河上的桥。河边的老房子是这座中世纪城市古老历史的见证。

Ponte Vecchio

The oldest and most beautiful bridge in Florence is the Ponte Vecchio. It is a medieval stone closed-spandrel segmental arch bridge. There are some shops on the roof covered bridge and it makes the road too narrow so I would like cross the river through another bridge to avoid the crowd on the bridge.

佛罗伦萨最古老、最美丽的桥是维奇奥桥,它是一座中世纪的石制封闭式拱肩节段拱桥。桥上有一些商店,这使得道路太窄,所以我绕道另一座桥过河,躲避桥上的人群。

Ponte Santa Trinita

The Ponte Santa Trìnita is another Renaissance bridge, the oldest elliptic arch bridge in the world, characterised by three flattened ellipses. Standing on this bridge, I can observe meticulously the whole structure of the beautiful Ponte Vecchio.

圣三一桥是另一座文艺复兴时期的桥梁,世界上最古老的椭圆形拱桥,有三个扁平的椭圆桥洞。站在这座桥上,我可以仔细观察对面美丽维奇奥桥的整个结构。

Palazzo Pitti

After I crossed the river, the next destination is the Palazzo Pitti. It dated from 1458 and was originally the town residence of Luca Pitti, an ambitious Florentine banker. The palace was bought by the Medici family in 1549 and became the chief residence of the ruling families of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.

过了河之后,下一个目的地是皮蒂宫。它的历史可以追溯到1458年,最初是卢卡·皮蒂的住所,他是一位雄心勃勃的佛罗伦萨银行家。这座宫殿于1549年被美第奇家族买下,成为托斯卡纳大公国家族的主要住所。

Palazzo Pitti

In the late 18th century, the palazzo was used as a power base by Napoleon and later served for a brief period as the principal royal palace of the newly united Italy. The palace was donated to the Italian people by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1919. It is now the largest museum in Florence. Here we could see many paintings of Raphael.

18世纪末,拿破仑将宫殿用作己用,后来在一段短暂的时期内,它成为新建立的统一的意大利王国的主要皇宫。这座宫殿后来在1919年被国王维克托·伊曼纽尔三世捐赠给意大利人民。它如今是佛罗伦萨最大的博物馆。在这里我们可以看到许多拉斐尔的油画。

Sala dei Pappagalli

This is one room in the palace. In the Medici perod, it was the antechamber of the Grand Prince Ferdinando.

这是宫殿里的一个房间。在美第奇时期,它是费迪南多大王子的前厅。

Sala del Trono

It was the Audience room of the apartment of the Grand prince Ferdinando. From 1865, under the House of Savoy, it became the throne room. This is the seat of the King of Savoy.

这是费迪南多大王子的客厅。从1865年起,在萨瓦家族的统治下,它成为了王权室。图中这是萨瓦国王的座位。

Salotto Celeste

This room used to be the music room of the apartment of the Grand Prince Ferdinando. In the 18th century, it was used as the dining room by the Lorraine family. The chandelier in this room was very spectacular. It was the only one thing that has survived from the Medici period.

这个房间曾经是费迪南多大王子的音乐室。18世纪,洛林家族把它用作餐厅。这个房间的枝行吊灯非常精致,也是美第奇时期唯一保留下来的物品。

Piazzale Michelangelo

I have spent much time in the palace Piti because there were so many things displaying. When I left it, the sun began to go down. The Piazzale Michelangelo is a good place to see the sun set since it is a high point in Florence. At this place, all the major land marks of the city could be seen without any obstructions.

因为这里陈列了太多展品,我在宫殿里花了很多时间。当我离开时,太阳开始下山了。米开朗基罗广场是翡冷翠观赏日落的好地方,它是一个制高点。在这个广场上,城市的所有主要地标都一览无余。

Badia Fiorentina

On this high land, we could not only see the cathedral Sainta Maria del Fiore and palazzo Vechio, but also the bell tower of Badia Fiorentina. These are most obvious buidings. The Badìa Fiorentina is an abbey and now becomes home to the Monastic Communities of Jerusalem. It was said that Dante used to live near the area so I would like to see it.

在这片高地上,我们不仅可以看到圣母百花大教堂和旧宫,还可以看到佛罗伦萨巴迪亚钟楼。这些都是最显眼的建筑。巴迪亚现在成为耶路撒冷修道院的所在地。据说但丁以前住在附近,所以我想去看看。

When I went back to the north side of the river, the sun has started to go down and sky was aglow with sunset colours. The bridge was immersed slowly into the darkness.

当我回到河的北边时,太阳已经开始下山,余晖照红了天空。桥慢慢地浸入在黑暗之中。

Basilica di Santa Croce

After taking pictures at the high land, the night had come and I was on my way back. This is another famous church Basilica of Santa Croce. It buried the most illustrious Italians, such as Michelangelo, Galileo, Machiavelli, the poet Foscolo, the philosopher Gentile and the composer Rossini, so it is known also as the “Temple of the Italian Glories”.

在高地拍照后,夜幕降临,我开始返程。这是另一个著名的圣十字大教堂。这里埋葬了最杰出的意大利人,如米开朗基罗、伽利略、马基雅维利、诗人福斯科罗、哲学家加蒂莱、作曲家罗西尼等,因此也被称为“意大利荣耀的殿堂”。

Monumento a Dante Alighieri

On the square of Santa Croce, the statue of poet Dante Alighieri could be found next to Basilica of Santa Croce. It was built in 1865 by Italian sculptor Enrico Pazzi. Dante’s Divine Comedy is widely known as the most important poem of the Middle Ages.

在圣十字广场上,诗人但丁·阿里吉耶里的雕像就在圣十字教堂旁边。它由意大利雕塑家恩里科·帕齐于1865年建造。但丁的《神曲》被誉为中世纪最重要的诗歌。

 Galleria degli Uffizi

When I went back to have dinner, I passed by the famous Galleria degli Uffizi. It was one of the most important Italian museums also one of the largest and best known in the world and holds a collection of priceless works, particularly from the period renaissance. There too many tourists here. It is recommended to book the ticket online before the visit.

当我回去吃晚餐的时候,我路过著名的乌斐兹美术馆。它是意大利最重要的博物馆,也是世界上最大最著名的博物馆之一,收藏了许多珍贵的作品,尤其是文艺复兴时期的作品。这里的游客太多了。建议在参观前在线预订门票。

The Birth of Venus

One of the most famous work in the gallery is The Birth of Venus painted by the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli in the mid 1480s. It depicts the goddess Venus arriving at the shore after her birth, when she had emerged from the sea.

美术馆最著名的作品之一是意大利艺术家桑德罗·波提切利在14世纪80年代中期创作的《维纳斯的诞生》,它描绘了女神维纳斯在出生后从海上浮出水面来到岸边的情景。

Venus of Urbino

Another famous work The Venus of Urbino is painted by the Italian painter Titian. It depicts a nude young woman, representing the goddess Venus, reclining on a couch in the sumptuous surroundings of a palace. 

另一幅著名的作品《乌比诺的维纳斯》是意大利画家提香所作。它描绘了一个裸体的年轻女子,代表维纳斯女神,躺在一个豪华的宫殿里的沙发上。

Loggia dei Lanzi

The Loggia dei Lanzi is a building on a corner of the Piazza della Signoria adjoining the Uffizi Gallery. It consists of wide arches open to the street. Here there are many statues to be seen. If you are insterested in statues, this will be a great place.

兰齐凉廊是一座位于毗邻乌菲兹画廊的广场的一角的建筑。它由通向街道的宽拱门组成。这里有许多雕像可以看。如果你对雕像很感兴趣,这将是一个合适的地方。

Piazza della Santissima Annunziata

Lastly on my way back to hotel,there was a square with fountains and scupltures. The square is named after the church of the Annunziata at the head of the square. In the center of the square, there is the bronze Equestrian statue of Ferdinando I. This would be my last place to visit in Florence before I went back back to hotel.

最后,在我回酒店的路上,一个广场上有喷泉和雕塑。这个广场是以广场上的救赎教堂命名的。广场中央有费迪南多一世的铜像,这将是我回酒店前在佛罗伦萨游览的最后一个地方。

Generally, Florence is superb place for people who are interested in arts and the history of renaissance. Although I am not a big fan of arts, I still felt it worthy and I think that 2 days are not enough at all to visit all the famous museums. If I could come next time, I will visit the Uffizi Gallery and the Boboli garden that I missed this time. Due to the different reasons, I could not visit them, it was a pity for me.

总之佛罗伦萨是一个对艺术和文艺复兴历史感兴趣的游客的绝佳去处。虽然我不是一个艺术迷,但我仍然觉得这是非常值得的,2天根本不够参观所有著名的博物馆。如果我下次能再来,我将去参观乌菲兹美术馆和这次错过的波波利花园。由于一些的原因,我这次不能去参观这些地方,实在很遗憾。

The superb Christmas trip in Rome

罗马的超凡圣诞之旅

Giuseppe Verdi – Aida – Marcia Triunfal

This christmas holiday, I have spent 8 days in Italy. That is a great experience for me. I have played the game Roma Total War before and I really enjoy it so Rome has always been a city that I dreamed of. I went there by the high speed train Frecciarosa, it is really fast. Since there are too many places to visit, I will only introduce the most important ones.

这个圣诞节假期,我在意大利待了8天。对我来说这是一次很棒的经历。我以前玩过罗马全面战争的游戏,我特别很喜欢它,所以罗马一直是我梦寐以求的城市。我这次是坐高铁Frecciarosa去的,风驰电掣一般的感觉。因为罗马有太多的地方可参观,我只会介绍一些重要的。

The story of the founding of Rome city comes from Romulus and Remus, twins who were suckled by a wolf as infants in the 8th century BC. This statue shows this story. Another stories say that the Roman people are descended from Trojan War hero Aeneas, who escaped to Italy after the war, and whose son, Iulus, was the ancestor of the family of Julius Caesar.

罗马城建立的故事来自于公元前8世纪被狼哺育的双胞胎罗慕卢斯和罗姆斯。这座雕像就诠释这个故事。另一个故事说,罗马人是特洛伊战争英雄埃涅阿斯的后裔,埃涅阿斯战后逃到意大利,他的儿子尤卢斯据说是凯撒家族的祖先。

Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore 

This was the first place I visited after I left the station Roma Termini because it was near the station. The church of Santa Maria Maggiore is the largest Catholic Marian church in Rome. It was built under Celestine I (422–432). Vatican City still fully owns the Basilica although it is in Italy territory.

这是我离开罗马火车站后参观的第一个地方,因为这座教堂火离车站很近。圣母玛利亚主教堂是罗马最大的天主教堂。它是在塞莱斯汀一世(422年-432年)统治下建造的。尽管它在意大利领土内,梵蒂冈教皇国却完全拥有这座教堂的主权。

Piazza dell’Esquilino

This is the view of the church from backside, from the Piazza dell’Esquilino. There is an obelisk on the square. This kind of building could be found in many squares of Rome.

这是从Esquilino广场看到的教堂背面。广场上有一座方尖碑。这种建筑在罗马的许多广场上都能看到。

Piazza Venezia

After 10 minutes walk, I arrived at the most beautiful place in Rome, the Piazza Venezia. It is located at the historical center of Rome. On this square, we could see the Palazzo Venezia and the statue of Victor-Emmanuel II who was the first king of Italy and get the panaromic view of ruins of ancient Rome. Piazza Venezia was named after the Cardinal Venezia, who ordered the construction of his own place, Palazzo Venezia, in 1455.

步行10分钟后,我来到了罗马最美丽的地方威尼斯广场。它位于罗马老城区的中心。在这个广场上,我可以看到威尼斯宫和意大利第一任国王维克托·伊曼纽尔二世的雕像,并可以看到古罗马遗址的全景。威尼斯广场是以红衣主教维尼西亚的名字命名的,红衣主教在1455年下令建造自己的住所威尼斯宫。

There are three important main roads around this square, la via dei Fori imperiali, la via del Corso and la via del Teatro di Marcello. As the idiom said, all roads lead to Rome. We could find many statues of goddess here. The 16 scupltures of pediment marks the regions of Italy and the two fountains represent the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Adriatic Sea. The Romans call this building as “the cake of mariage” due to the shape of the building.

广场周围有三条重要的主干道,即帝国大道、科索大道和马赛罗戏剧院大道。就如谚语所说条条大路通罗马。我们可以在这个广场看到许多女神像。16个三角墙雕塑标志着意大利的地区,两个喷泉代表着伊特鲁里亚海和亚得里亚海。因为这座建筑的形状,罗马人把这座建筑称为“结婚蛋糕”。

This is the statue of Vittorio Emanuele II who leads the unification of Italy. Italiens respect him much, as the father of the country. The base of statue is made of marbre, built by Giuseppe Sacconi on 19th century.

这是维托里奥·伊曼努埃尔二世的雕像。他是意大利祖国之父领导了意大利的统一,意大利人非常尊敬他。雕像底部由大理石制成,是朱塞佩·萨科尼于19世纪建造。

Also we could find a monument in the square as a memorial to the death solders. This is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

我们还可以在广场上看到一座纪念碑,纪念意大利的阵亡战士。这是牺牲的无名战士的陵墓。

Forum Traiani

On the east side of the square, the Forum Traiani could be seen clearly with three relics Basilica Ulpia, Colonna Traiana and Macellum Traiani. This forum was built on the order of the emperor Trajan due the conquest of Dacia, which was done in 106. There is a long post with 38 meters length. That is the famous Colonna Traiana, i.e Trajan’s Column. The column is most famous for its spiral bas relief, which artistically represents the wars between the Romans and Dacians. The whole history of Roman empire was the history of conquest and war.

在广场的东侧,可以清楚地看到图拉真广场上的乌尔皮亚大教堂,图拉真之柱和图拉真市场三处遗迹。这个广场是按照图拉真皇帝的命令建造的,源于106年完成的对达西亚的征服。广场上的一根长38米的长柱,这就是著名的图拉真之柱。这根圆柱以其螺旋形浅浮雕而闻名,它代表了罗马人和达西亚人之间的战争。整个罗马帝国的历史就是一部战争征服史。

On the terrasse of the square staring far away, the major historical building of Rome and the skyline could be oberved, like the Colosseo, the Roman theater, the Roman forum. At the moment of watching the beautiful scenes , it was really difficult to describe it with just several words. It is as if all the scenes in the game of Rome Total War suddenly becomes reality and the history of thousand years’ fall and rise of Roman empire flashes into my eyes like replays of movies.

在广场的天台上放目远眺,罗马的主要历史建筑,如竞技场、罗马剧院、罗马广场以及天际线尽收眼底。在观看露台上美丽景色的那一刻的感觉,千言万语都显得如此苍白无力。好像罗马全面战争游戏中的所有场景突然变成了现实,好像罗马帝国千年的兴衰史如同电影回放一样历历在目。

Macellum Traiani

The Macellum Traiani is a ruin of Roman market located on the Via dei Fori Imperiali built in 100-110 AD by Apollodorus of Damascus. It was the world’s oldest shopping mall. The shops were built in a multi-level structure and it is still possible to visit several of the levels.

图拉真市场是古罗马市场的遗迹,位于罗马帝国大道上,由大马士革的阿波罗多鲁斯于公元100-110年之间建造。它是世界上最古老的购物中心。这些商店建在一个多层的结构中,现在仍然可以参观。

Fontana Del Tirreno

Rome is famous for beautiful fountains. This is one fountain located at the corner of the square, Fontana Del Tirreno. This fountain represents the Tyrrhenian Sea.

罗马城以美丽的喷泉而闻名。这是位于威尼斯广场一角的一个喷泉,叫做蒂雷诺喷泉。这座喷泉代表着伊特鲁里亚海。

Trevi Fountain

Not far from the square, in the north of the square Venezia, there is one famous fountain attracting many tourists around the world. It is designed by Italian architect Nicola Salvi and completed by Giuseppe Pannini and several others in 1762. Standing against the Palazzo Poli, it is the largest Baroque fountain in the city. The fountain represents the ocean and there is the statue of the god of ocean Neptune in the center of the fountain. It is heard that if you want to return to Roma, you should throw a coin to the basin. Of course I did it, and made a wish for the upcoming new year.

距离广场不远,在威尼斯广场的北边,有一个著名的喷泉,特莱维喷泉,吸引着世界各地的游客。它由意大利建筑师尼古拉·萨尔维设计,由朱塞佩·帕尼尼和其他几个建筑师于1762年完成。它与波利宫相对,是罗马最大的巴洛克式喷泉。喷泉代表海洋,喷泉中心就是海王神的雕像。听说如果你想再回到罗马,就应该把一枚硬币扔到水池里。我也这么做了,并为即将到来的新年许下了一个愿望。

Panthéon 

Next I went to a magnificant building with many large granite Corithian columns. The Pantheon is a former Roman temple, now a church. It was completed by the emperor Hadrian. It means relating to all the gods. The temple Maison Carré in Nimes looks similar with this one but this one is bigger. After the Battle of Actium (31 BC), Marcus Agrippa started an impressive building program including the Pantheon. There is Latin words on the front of the temple which reads: M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECIT. It means “Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made [this building] when consul for the third time.

接下来我到了这座宏伟的建筑面前,它有许多巨大的花岗岩科林斯圆柱。万神殿以前是罗马神庙,现在是教堂。它是由哈德良皇帝完成的。它象征着所有的神,所以叫万神殿。尼姆的方形神庙看起来和这座很相似,但这座更大。在阿克提姆战役后(公元前31年),马库斯阿格里帕开始了一个万人瞩目的建筑计划,其中就包括万神殿。神殿正前方有一串拉丁文单词,上面写着:M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECIT。意思是“卢修斯的儿子马库斯阿格里帕,第三次当执政官时建造了这座建筑。

Piazza Navona

On the west of the Pantheon, it is the Piazza Navona, built in the 1st century AD, and it has a long oval shape because it was once the site of the Stadium of Domitian where festivals and sporting events took place. There are three fountains on the square. Surrounded by the restaurant, this is a pleasant place to have a drink or meal.

在万神殿的西面,是建于公元1世纪的纳沃纳广场,它是一个长长的椭圆形,因为它曾经是举行节日和体育赛事的多米蒂体育场的所在地。广场上有三个喷泉,餐厅林立,很适合在这里喝一杯或吃一顿。

Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi

In the center of the square, it is the famous Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi or Fountain of the Four Rivers (1651) designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The Fountain of the Four Rivers depicts Gods of the four great rivers in the four continents as then recognized by the Renaissance geographers: the Nile in Africa, the Ganges in Asia, the Danube in Europe and the Río de la Plata in America.
Each location is represented by one characteristic sculpture. The Ganges carries a long oar, representing the river’s navigability. The Nile’s head is draped with a loose piece of cloth, meaning that no one at that time knew exactly where the Nile’s source was. The Danube touches the Papal coat of arms, since it is the largest river closest to Rome. And the Río de la Plata is sitting on a pile of coins, a symbol of the riches America might offer to Europe.

广场中央是著名的由吉安·洛伦佐·贝尔尼尼1651年设计的四河喷泉。四河喷泉描绘了当时文艺复兴时期地理学家所认识的四大洲的四大河神:非洲的尼罗河、亚洲的恒河、欧洲的多瑙河和美洲的拉普拉塔河。

每个有特征的雕塑代表着每个地方。恒河有一个长桨,代表着这条河的适航性。尼罗河的头部覆盖着一块松散的布,这意味着当时没有人确切知道尼罗河的源头在哪里。多瑙河与教皇的盾徽相接,因为它是离罗马最近的最大的河流。而拉普拉塔河正位于一堆硬币上,象征着美洲可能给欧洲带来的财富。

Fontana del Moro

Another is the Fontana del Moro with a basin and four Tritons sculpted by Giacomo della Porta in 1575 and Bernini added a statue of a Moor, wrestling with a dolphin in 1673.

另一个是1575年贾科莫·德拉·波塔雕刻的带有水池和四个海神之子的摩罗喷泉,1673年贝尔尼尼添加了一尊摩尔人与海豚搏斗的雕像。

Largo di Torre Argentina

In the south of the square Navona and west of the square Venezia, there is one square with four Roman Republican temples and the remains of Pompey’s Theatre. Julius Caesar was killed in the Curia of the Theatre of Pompey. This should be the place where he had been assassinated.

在纳沃纳广场南部和威尼斯广场以西,有一个广场,这里有四座罗马共和国神庙和庞贝剧院的遗迹。凯撒大帝在庞贝剧院被杀,所以这个遗址应该是他被刺杀的地方。

Palazzo Venezia

After I walked along the road eastward, I went back to the Venezia square and discovered the Palazzo Venezia. There are many palms planted in the garden. This building could trace back to 15th centuary and used to be the residencial place of pope. In 20th centuary, it was occupied by Mussolini. Mussolini used it as the regime’s main palace, with its balcony, famous for being the place from which war was announced.

沿着这条路往东走,我回到威尼斯广场,发现了广场边的威尼斯宫。花园里种了许多棕榈树。这座建筑可以追溯到15世纪,曾是教皇的住所。在20世纪,它被墨索里尼占有。墨索里尼把它作为政权的主要宫殿,这里的阳台就是以宣布法西斯战争的开始而闻名。

Piazza del Campidoglio

In this area, there are many ways leading to the Via dei Fori Imperiali. I chose another road with steps instead of the main road. This road leads me to the Piazza del Campidoglio (Capitole square). There is the statue of Marc Aurele in the center of the square. Marc Aurele was the Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors.

在这一地区,有许多途径通往帝国大道。我选择了一条有台阶的路,而不是主路。这条路通向议会广场。广场中央有马克·奥雷尔的雕像。马克奥雷尔是161至180年间的罗马皇帝,是一位斯多葛学派哲学家。他是罗马最后一位被称为好皇帝的统治者。

Via dei Fori Imperiali

The most magnificant place of Rome certainly is the Via dei Fori Imperiali which means the road of empire. This is a long road connecting Piazza Venezia and the Coliseo. Along this road, all the Roman relics could be seen and you will feel that you are walking on the street of Roman Empire. The Coliseo of course is the icon of Rome. It was built of travertine limestone, tuff (volcanic rock), and brick-faced concrete; it was the largest amphitheatre ever built and held 50,000 to 80,000 spectators. Its construction began under the emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed in AD 80 under his successor Titus.

罗马最壮观的地方当然是帝国大道。这是一条连接威尼斯广场和竞技场的长路。沿着这条路,可以看到几乎所有的罗马遗迹,你会觉得你走在古罗马帝国的大街上。竞技场当然是罗马城的标志。它是由石灰岩、凝灰岩和砖面混凝土建成的;也是有史以来最大的圆形剧场,可容纳5万至8万名观众。它于公元72年在维斯帕西安皇帝统治下开始修建,在他的继任者提图斯治下于公元80年竣工。

The Colosseum is just east of the Roman Forum. The forum is a rectangular square surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings. I have seen many cute sea gulls in the square, they like to land at the places with many people. They are really friendly with the visitors.

竞技场就在罗马广场的东边。罗马广场是一个长方形的广场,周围是几座重要的古代政府建筑的废墟。我在广场上见过许多可爱的海鸥,它们喜欢在人多的地方降落,对游客很友好。

Arco di Settimio Severo

Along the Via dei Fori Imperiali, I could see clearly The Arch of Septimius Severus (Arco di Settimio Severo) at the northwest end of the Roman Forum; it is a white marble triumphal arch to commemorate the victories of Emperor Septimius Severus and his two sons, Caracalla and Geta, in the two campaigns against the Parthians of 194/195 and 197–199.

沿着帝国大道,我可以清楚地看到位于罗马广场西北端的Settimio Severo拱门;这是一座白色大理石凯旋门,用来纪念塞普蒂米乌斯·塞维鲁斯皇帝及其两个儿子卡拉卡拉和盖在194/195年和197-199年两次对帕提亚人的战役的胜利。

 Templum Saturni 

The temple of Saturn is the temple dedicated to Saturn built at the beginning of Rome republic. In the forum of Rome there are many remnants of the bases of temples or basilique and it is difficult to distinguish them but this one is quite obvious. In Roman mythology, Saturn ruled during the Golden Age and he is associated with wealth. His temple housed the treasury, the aerarium, where the Roman Republic’s reserves of gold and silver were stored.

土星神庙是罗马共和国初期建造的供奉土星的神庙。在罗马广场上,有许多寺庙或教堂的遗迹,很难分辨,不过这个神庙很明显。在古罗马神话中,土星神统治着黄金时代,所以把他和财富联系在一起。他的庙宇里也就是罗马共和国储存金银的地方。

Along this road there are some statues of Roman leaders for example Julius Caesar; also we could find the S.P.Q.R on the statues and many places in Rome. This is the symbol of Roman Republic and represents the political power of Rome. In movies and games, we could see the S.P.Q.R symbols on the flag of Roman armies!

沿着帝国大道可以看到一些罗马领袖的雕像,例如尤利乌斯·凯撒;我们也可以在雕像和罗马的许多地方找到S.P.Q.R的字符。这是罗马共和国的象征,代表罗马的政治权力。在电影和游戏里,我们可以看到罗马军队旗帜上的S.P.Q.R的符号!

Piazza del Popolo

After one night’s rest, I started my trip from the Piazza del Popolo. It is a square with style of neo-classic. It is the important starting point of via Flaminia leading to the north of Italy. Before the period of railway, this is the first view point seen by the visitors when they arrived at Rome. The cathedrales on the square is totally symmetrical, a strange design.

休息了一夜后,我从人民广场开始了我的旅行。这是一个具有新古典主义风格的正方形广场。它是古罗马弗拉米尼亚大道通往意大利北部的重要起点。在铁路时代之前,这是游客到达罗马时看到的第一个景点。广场上的大教堂完全对称,设计独特。

Piazza di Spagna

Walking along the Piazza del Popolo southwards, there is another romantic square, the Piazza di Spagna. One scene of the famous movie Roman Holiday is taken here. Audrey Hepburn was eating ice cream together with Gregory Peck at the step of the square.

沿着人民广场向南走,有另一个特别浪漫的广场,西班牙广场。著名电影《罗马假日》的一幕就是在这里拍摄的。奥黛丽·赫本和格利高利·派克一起在广场的台阶上吃冰淇淋。

Piazza Cavour 

Next I moved towards the direction of Vatican city. On the way, there is a beautiful square Piazza Cavour. The building on this picture is the palace of justice of Italy.

接下来我朝梵蒂冈城的方向走去。在路上,有一个美丽的卡武广场。这个照片上的建筑是意大利司法宫。

The statue on the square is the Count of Cavour who led the movement toward Italian unification. After the unification of Kingdom of Italy, Cavour took office as the first Prime Minister of Italy.

广场上的雕像是领导意大利统一运动的卡武伯爵。意大利王国统一后,他就任意大利的第一任首相。

Ponte Sant’Angelo

The Vatican city is at the west side of the Tibre river. To cross the river, I needed to cross the Ponte Sant’Angelo. It was a Roman bridge completed in 134 AD by Roman Emperor Hadrian to span the Tiber from the city centre to his newly constructed mausoleum, the Castel Sant’Angelo.

梵蒂冈城在台伯河的西岸。为了过河我必需要穿过圣天使桥。这是公元134年由罗马皇帝哈德良完成的一座古罗马桥,横跨台伯河从市中心到他新建的陵墓圣天使城堡。

Castel SantAngelo

The Castel Sant’Angelo was built starting from 123-125, ending in 139, designed to be the mausoleum of the emperor Hadrian. It is a very large castle but I did not enter it due to a long queue. On the top of the castle, there is a statue of Saint Michel with swords in the hands.

圣天使城堡建于123-125年,完工于139年,是哈德良皇帝的陵墓。这是一座非常大的城堡,但由于排队太长,我没有进去参观。在城堡的顶部,有一尊手持圣剑的圣米歇尔雕像。

Plazzo Saint-Pierre
San Pietro in Vaticano

Vatican City is the smallest country in the world which is located at the west side of the Castel Sant’Angelo. It is the main travelling site for every visitors. Huge amounts of tourists come so it took me 2 hours for the queue of visiting the Basilica Saint-Pierre which is the largest in the world. It is also listed as the world heritage by UNESCO. It was built under the order of Constantine 1st, finished on 1626. The tourists could only visit the museum and the basilica but could not access to other parts of the country.

Constantine I was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. From that time, Christianity has become the dominating religion in Europe.

梵蒂冈城是世界上最小的国家,位于圣天使城堡的西侧。它是每位来罗马游客的必玩之地。我花了2个小时在人山人海中排队参观了世界上最大的圣皮埃尔大教堂。它被联合国教科文组织列为世界遗产。它是在君士坦丁一世的命令下建造的,完成于1626年。游客只能参观博物馆和大教堂,但不能进入该国其他地区。

君士坦丁一世是第一位皈依基督教的罗马皇帝。从那时起,基督教成为欧洲的主要宗教。

The basilica has a big dome and the decoration inside is beautiful including many pictures on the wall and dome. It is highly recommended to visit it despite of the long queue. The building itself is like a masterpiece of arts. Outside the basilica, there is one post office. Visitors could send postcards with postmark of Vatican City.

教堂有一个大圆顶,里面的装饰很漂亮,墙上和圆顶上有许多画。尽管排队很长,但强烈建议去参观。这座建筑本身就像一座艺术杰作。大教堂外有一个邮局。游客可以寄出带有梵蒂冈邮戳的明信片。

Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere

After I left the Vatican City, it was afternoon, and I had to be on my way to the train station. This basilica is a famous one. It was bult under Calixte 1st, and became the first place of Christian religion that is open to the public.

我离开梵蒂冈城后,已经是下午,我必须赶去火车站了。这座大教堂也很有名。它是在卡利克斯特一世统治下建立的,并成为第一个向公众开放的基督教场所。

Sainta-Maria in Cosmedin

When the sun started to go down, I visited the last site of my trip in Rome, the Sainta-Maria in Cosmedin. It is a common church but many people come here because of the Bocca della Verità.

当太阳开始下山的时候,我参观了在罗马旅行的最后一个地点,科斯迈丁的圣母玛利亚教堂。这是一个普通的教堂,但许多人来这里是因为著名的真理之嘴。

Bocca della Verità

Bocca della Verità means Mouth of Truth. It is a marble mask in the corner of the Sainta-Maria in Cosmedin. It weighs about 1300 kg and depicts the face of the sea titan god Oceanus. Many visitors will put their hands in the mouth and it was said that if you were talking the lies, the mouth of truth will bite your hand. Very interesting!

真理之嘴是一个大理石面具坐落在圣母玛利亚教堂的角落。它重约1300公斤,描绘的是海洋泰坦神的面容。许多游客都会把手伸进它的嘴里,据说如果你说的是谎言,真理之嘴就会咬住你的手。非常有趣!

I would end my travel by the mouth of truth and I hope I will always be on the way of pursuing the truth. Rome is a fantastic city with so many relics, architectures, statues in the periods of Roman Empire, and it is really worth of visiting. I hope the Trevi fountain could bring good luck to me in the new year 2020 and I will come Rome next time!

我将在真理之嘴结束我在罗马的旅行,也希望我在追求真理的道路上一直走下去,路漫漫其修远兮吾将上下而求索。罗马是一个非比寻常的城市,有众多罗马帝国时期的遗迹、建筑、雕像,非常值得一游。我希望特莱维喷泉能在2020年给我带来好运,并且下次还会再来罗马!